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Lifestyle & Culture

CBD weed – It’s real, so get the facts

But what really is CBD weed, and why all the fuss? Let’s find out.



As the legal use of marijuana grows, people are getting more interested in weed and curious about all the options given to them by this miraculous plant. Until now, we’ve discovered two natural extracts – THC and CBD. The first one has been known, and used for many years, the other one not so much. But can the CBD weed become the next big thing? 

Many people are starting to believe that it indeed can. As its popularity grows, more and more weed shops like 420DC are widening their range of CBD based products. What’s more, it is also getting more attention from the medical world. 

But what really is CBD weed, and why all the fuss? Let’s find out.

What is CBD?

Let’s start with a quick chemistry lesson. Cannabidiol, better known as CBD, is the marijuana or hemp plant natural extract. What’s a hemp plant? It is a cannabis plant that contains less than 0.3 percent of THC. What does it mean? It means that it won’t get you high because THC is the main psychoactive compound. The less THC, the less high sensations. So if you want to get high, don’t use CBD weed, use THC weed.

Okay, now you know what CBD weed is, now’s the time to find out how it works. The main difference between THC and CBD is that CBD is known as the non-psychoactive one. It’s not entirely correct to say that about CBD weed. Even though it doesn’t give you the same high sensations as THC, it does directly affect your mood and process of cognition.

However, CBD is not intoxicating. It has the calming effect associated with cannabis but doesn’t affect you as the THC does. THC often leaves its users intoxicated and temporarily impaired, whereas CBD does none of these things. That’s why CBD weed is called the non-psychoactive one.

Medical benefits

Cannabis has gotten more attention from the medical world in recent years. Both THC and CBD are well known for their medical benefits and can be used in different types of diseases. Because of its non-psychoactive effect, CBD can be used by patients who have psychosis and mental disorders, inflammation, epilepsy, seizures, nausea, and migraines. So CBD for the people, right?

CBD weed is also much more tolerated by our organism, even in large doses. Any side effects that may occur by its usage are often caused by the other medications that are taken with it and not by the CBD itself. It’s a huge advantage of CBD when you compare it to THC. 

Now a little piece of evidence to resolve your doubts. In the study published by The Permanente Journal on the 7th of January in 2019, it turned out that CBD weed can have a great impact on people suffering from anxiety and insomnia. The study found that 600 milligrams of CBD decreased anxiety in people before their public speeches. There’s more. 25 milligrams of CBD daily for a month made people who used it more relaxed, and it also increased their quality of sleep. CBD for the people indeed.

But CBD can also be used by pets, or to be more precise, by the owners on their pets. It is scientifically proven that CBD helps in curing seizures, arthritis, and other issues found in dogs. It can also help your dog to calm down when it’s stressed and frightening. More research is needed, but CBD can really be a great thing for your cat or dog.


Hemp-derived CBD products are legal under federal law thanks to the 2018 Farm Bill, but some states and cities have a more strict policy when it comes to CBD weed. CBD products are also forbidden on domestic and international flights. 

In recent years DEA has loosened its policy when it comes to CBD based products such as CBD oil made of hemp, but overall CBD is still in a legal grey area. Food and Administration, for example, is yet to legalize CBD for sale as a supplement, and it’s waiting for more information on the CBD itself. Unfortunately, there are no CBD books, but many scientists are working to find more information about CBD weed.

Despite FAD concerns and legal constraints, CBD weed is getting more and more attention and interest, as the hype around it increases. CBD is finding its way into a lot of common products. There are CBD chocolates, CBD bath bombs, CBD shakes, coffee, and many more. Who knows, maybe even Willy Wonka had a CBD chocolate somewhere in his factory. That would’ve explained a lot.


It’s high time for the most exciting part of the article, more particularly, the usage. CBD weed can be used in many different ways, mostly because the market offers a vast range of other CBD based products. As mentioned before, even common products can be based on miraculous cannabis extract.

Firstly, we have an edible CBD. You will be able to find tons of so-called non-psychoactive CBD products on the Internet. Because it is something you eat, edible CBD covers what you ingest, and when it lands in your stomach, it intestines and gets soaked into your bloodstream. You will feel the effects after 45 minutes to 2 hours, depending on what and how much of it you eat. CBD can be found in chocolates and other sweets, beverages, and capsules.

The second way of getting CBD into your system is by inhaling it. A traditional method known for centuries is also reliable when it comes to CBD weed. By getting straight into your lungs, CBD will find multiple ways to creep in, and thanks to a vape heating cannabis extract, it will provide you with a potent and fast-acting effect. There are a lot of CBD vape pens all around the Internet, so it won’t be hard for you to find the best CBD pen to suit your needs.

There’s also an external way of CBD usage. Cannabinoid receptors are not only present inside of you, but they can also be found on your whole skin. Thanks to that, there are plenty of CBD based skincare products in the market. CBD soaps, creams, oils, ointments, etc. can have an excellent effect on people with skin problems, acne, or psoriasis. Thick lotions are more useful when it comes to pain, whereas light creams can be great for facial skin.

Types of CBD oil

If you want to start taking CBD, the best way to begin is with oil since it’s very easy to use. You can add it to your food or drink, use it in your CBD pen, or put a few drops under your tongue. But before you buy yourself one, remember that there are three major types of CBD oil. 

The first one is full-spectrum CBD oil. It contains, in addition to the full spectrum of CBD, a trace amount of THC that can be found in the hemp plant. 

The second one is called broad-spectrum. It contains a full spectrum of cannabinoids and other terpenes, but there are no traces of THC.

The last type of CBD oil is an isolate. It contains only CBD, and other cannabis compounds are nowhere to be found.

As you can see, it’s very easy to find yourself an oil that will suit all your needs, but you should be aware of the fact that not all CBD oils and products are created equal. There are of course companies that respect consumers and therefore adhere to labeling standards, but there are also ones that would love to deceive you. Look out for vague labels that say hemp oil or hemp seed oil, because usually they don’t have anything to do with CBD.


Alright, now it’s time to sum it all up. After reading this article, you should know that CBD stands for cannabidiol and that there are many reasons why it’s getting more attention. Even though in-depth research on CBD effects on our life and health, there are many people claiming that it has indeed helped them with overcoming various health and mental problems. Should we expect the growth of CBD based products, and medicaments in the future though? The answer will reveal itself in the next few years, but all the fuss is not a coincidence. Nevertheless, we must still wait to start producing t-shirts with “CBD for life” phrases on them.

Lifestyle & Culture

What to do when your company’s reputation is in the gutter

Whatever the case may be, saving your reputation is still possible. Here are just a few steps for rebuilding a damaged reputation.



A poor reputation isn’t good for business. Attracting customers could be a struggle (or you may find that you’re attracting the wrong sort of customer). You may have been publicly shamed on social media, you may have lots of negative reviews or you may have garnered a bad reputation locally simply through word of mouth. It might have been one big mistake that tanked your reputation, or it could have been a gradual process.


Whatever the case may be, saving your reputation is still possible. Here are just a few steps for rebuilding a damaged reputation.

Publicly apologize

If your reputation has been destroyed by a single event, it’s important that you own up to your mistakes and publicly apologize immediately. You could post something on social media or email all customers that have been affected. Clear up any misunderstandings so that there are no false rumours still in circulation and be honest about the things you have done wrong. A public apology may not be necessary if it’s been a gradual slip in reputation, although you may still benefit from responding to individual negative reviews with apologies. This guide at Entrepreneur offers more tips on publicly apologizing. 

Consider a rebrand

To get rid of your bad image problem, it could be essential that you rebrand yourself. This will help to show consumers that you’re reinventing yourself and could convince them that you’ve turned over a new leaf. Changing your company name isn’t necessary (and could be seen as an attempt to hide your past), however you may want to consider changing your logo, redesigning your website and potentially refurbishing your premises. 

Hire a PR company

A PR company may be able to help you establish positive media coverage that could help to rebuild your reputation. This could be important if you’ve developed bad press that is putting off customers. There are PR companies out there such as Elite Lawyer Management that caters to specialised industries. Choosing a specialist PR company could ensure that you get a service specialised to you.

Utilize your happy customers

Not all your customers are likely to be complaining. You may still have some loyal customers that have stuck with you through thick and thin. Reward these customers so that you don’t end up losing them too – this could involve giving them exclusive discounts or other privileges. You can also ask them to leave positive reviews to try and outweigh some of the negative reviews that you may have developed. 

Exercise philanthropy

Acts of philanthropy may be able to make up for some of the wrong you’ve committed. You could start donating proceeds to charity or you could try to make efforts to embrace fair trade and sustainable methods. This could help to paint your company in a more positive light. 

Be patient

You cannot rebuild a damaged reputation overnight. It could take months – and even years – before you’re able to fully leave behind your past reputation. Slowly but surely you will be able to win people over again, providing that you don’t let any bad behaviours from the past resurface.

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Lifestyle & Culture

What to do after you find out an attorney won’t take your personal injury case

You aren’t doomed if the first attorney you talk to won’t take your case. From finding one who will to your mental and physical health, there are plenty of things you can do to get over your injury as fast as possible.



One of the first things you should do if you are injured due to someone else’s negligence is to contact an attorney. They can help you get the money you deserve to pay bills and maintain your quality of life so you can recover without worry.

Unfortunately, there’s no guarantee that an attorney will take your case. You may discover that your attorney isn’t willing to work with you.

Don’t let their decision keep you from moving forward in your life. Here’s what you should do in the days and months after your case is declined by your attorney.

Talk to a Different Attorney

Don’t assume that because the first attorney you approach won’t take your case that no attorney will take your case. It’s true that they might turn you down because your case isn’t very strong, but it could also be possible that they don’t have the expertise that is required to win your case, they may feel like there’s a conflict of interest, or they may simply not have enough time. It’s worth your time to search for a different attorney.

Plan to schedule consultations with one or two more lawyers to discuss your case. Even if your case is difficult, you may find that there’s an attorney out there who is willing to take it on. With extra support from an attorney, you’ll be glad you didn’t give up the first time you were told no.

Apply for Disability Benefits

Applying for short- or long-term disability benefits is one of the first things you should do if you are injured and are unable to return to work. The sooner you apply, the sooner you’ll get the money you need to continue paying your bills, whether you’re waiting for a settlement or you simply can’t return to work.

If you’re waiting for your first payment or you’re struggling even after you receive disability benefits, look into other government programs that can help. From specific programs that help you pay bills to rental assistance and food programs, there is a lot of help out there if you and your family need it.

Go to Your Medical Appointments

If you’re struggling to find the assistance you need, whether from an attorney or the government, it’s easy to let your medical appointments slide. If you can’t afford to pay the bills, you may tell yourself that you can’t afford to go to your medical appointments either.

It is so important to prioritize your health if you want to recover from your injury. Keep your appointments to the best of your ability. Bring up your concerns with your doctor if costs are a concern. They may be able to safely reduce the number of your appointments, or they may be able to refer you to resources or other doctors who can help.

Take Time for Your Mental Health

It’s normal for your mental health to take a dip if you’re dealing with an injury. Scheduling appointments with a therapist is a great option, but if you don’t have the time, the money, or the interest, there are plenty of things you can do to get through a tough time.

A few ideas include:

  • Write about it
  • Set aside dedicated worry time every day, then move on
  • Talk to friends and family
  • Start a new hobby
  • Spend time outdoors
  • Get some exercise

Find a New Way to Make Money

There are a lot of things to worry and think about when you’re dealing with a personal injury, but for many who are injured, providing for their family is one of the biggest concerns. If you’re having a hard time sitting at home and worrying about your struggling family, you’ll feel a lot better if you find a new way to make money.

There are many things you can do to make a little extra cash, and the Social Security Administration may even be willing to help you. Some part time jobs won’t affect the money you receive from your disability benefits, you can find free training programs and grants that will help you go back to school, or you can simply find quick and easy ways to make a few extra bucks from home.

You aren’t doomed if the first attorney you talk to won’t take your case. From finding one who will to your mental and physical health, there are plenty of things you can do to get over your injury as fast as possible.

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Lifestyle & Culture

Ways to keep yourself fresh and active

There are different ways to overcome laziness and exhaustion despite the amount of extensive workload one faces. Keeping yourself upbeat and productive is very important, but people do not realize that giving time to yourself is just as essential to maintaining a healthy and happy lifestyle.



With so much work pressure and a challenging routine at school, staying fresh is very hard. Keeping fresh in this fast-paced world is easier said than done. There are different ways to overcome laziness and exhaustion despite the amount of extensive workload one faces. Keeping yourself upbeat and productive is very important, but people do not realize that giving time to yourself is just as essential to maintaining a healthy and happy lifestyle. In the process of getting things done and trying to earn a living, regardless of how we feel, we do very little to keep ourselves happy. 

Maintaining your energy levels throughout the day is very hard (we know). We try everything from coffee to energy drinks, but nothing seems to work out perfectly. Maybe it’s the method that’s not right, or perhaps it’s just not for us; we will never know. However, we can try out different ways and choose the best one for us that suits our body well.

8 Simple Tips To Feel Fresh & Stay Active

Let’s discuss a few methods and learn how to stay active all day.

1. Get Some Sleep

Sleep is essential for everyone. Let it be adults or kids. Although kids and adults both require different hours of sleep. Adults need about seven to eight hours of sleep every night. Also, keep in mind that sleep quality matters a lot; it’s not just about the quantity. First of all, turn off your cell phone before going to bed and draw your curtains to block out the light beaming in from the street as light can stub your sleep. The human body rests better in a dark and cold environment. Secondly, turn on that fan or air condition. 

Sleep is your key to staying fresh and energetic all day. Lack of sleep can cause dark circles, which can make you look exhausted. Furthermore, avoid heavy meals before going to bed as your body may consume energy while digesting, and you may end up waking up very tired.

2. Start Your Day Off With Exercise

Make sure you work out before carrying out any other activity. People mostly workout after they are done with their day, but that is not the right way to carry out your activities. Working out after your school or office has ended can legit drain out the remaining energy, and it can result in exhaustion. However, working out early in the morning can refresh your mind and help you stay active throughout the day. 

Exercise is not only good for keeping you active and fresh during the day, but it is also very good for your skin and digestive system.

3. Brush Your Teeth

Brushing your teeth twice a day can help you stay active. That minty splash of fresh in your mouth wakes you up instantly. Besides that, who likes the feeling of a dirty breath? No one! Having an unpleasant breath can make the ones around you uncomfortable and make you feel shabby. 

Furthermore, having bad breath can lower down your confidence levels which may lead to an exhausted-looking face.

4. Don’t Forget To Hydrate

All the heat and sweating dries your skin like flowers under the sun, all withered and brown. It is recommended to consume at least eight water glasses per day (more if you can). Water not only energizes you and helps keep you stay active but also clears your skin out of all the oxidants and gives a natural glow. Furthermore, water is also proven very good for weight loss.

5. Limit Your Caffeine Intake

Coffee, sodas, energy drinks, and other caffeinated drinks are very efficient in providing you with an instant jolt of energy. However, in the long run, you’ll be more tired throughout the day. Caffeine does not have long-lasting effects. Therefore, after the effect wears off, you may crave some more caffeine. Thus, creating dependency. This can lead you to ride a constant low-high of energy, tiring you out much faster. Secondly, caffeine increases your stress levels, causes headaches, gives you the effect of feeling jittery, increases blood pressure, and makes it harder to relax and fall asleep.

6. Avoid Smoking

Not only is smoking cancerous and horrible for your mental and physical health, but it also makes you feel more tired throughout the day. Nicotine is an infamous stimulant, known to increase the blood pressure and heart rate of its users. Furthermore, it can cause insomnia in some individuals. 

7. Take a shower

Take a shower after working out or in the middle of the day, whenever you feel like it. Although, make sure you take a cold shower and not a hot one as a hot shower can make you feel sleepy, while a cold shower helps you wake up and makes you feel energized. Also, using fragmented soaps can help you feel more energized and active.

If you have a swimming pool, just dive when you have time and get energized. I mean, who wouldn’t want to jump in a pool or, better, A LAKE.

Showers should be your go-to if you want to stay fresh and active during summers.

8. Use Natural Supplements

Our bodies try very hard to sustain themselves without much external influence. However, it is our duty to provide them with all the nutrients they require. Similar to eating clean and healthy food to fuel our bodies properly, we require some supplements, vitamins, and minerals that help your body run at an optimum level.

Here’s a list of some of the vital natural supplement that can help your body increase its energy levels:

  • Kratom
    Kratom is loved by its users worldwide. They praise kratom for its magical abilities. Kratom can not only boost up your energy levels, but certain strains can also help relieve pain and anxiety. There are the white strains that are the most potent, and then there are the red strains that are low. 
    White strains are used to boost energy. There are different types of white strains, such as White Thai kratom, white Borneo kratom, etc.
    Kratom can be consumed in the form of tea, pills, or powder. The method of tea and pills you obviously understand, but you might be wondering, “what is kratom powder?” obviously, you all know what powder means, but you may not be able to understand how to consume it exactly; it’s easy! Use the toss and wash method or add it to your shakes etc.
  • Vitamin B12
    Vitamin B12 helps change the food you ingest into energy. It assists in keeping your body’s nerves and blood cells healthy. It also prevents a specific type of anemia that can make you tired and weak. Vitamin B12 can be found in various animal proteins such as fish, meat, and dairy products. It can also be ingested in the form of B12 supplements.
  • Iron 
    Your body requires iron to create hemoglobin, a protein found in the red blood cells that supply oxygen from your lungs to your organs and tissues in the entire body. Inadequate levels of iron make it difficult for the red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body’s tissues effectively. This causes iron deficiency anemia, which can leave you feeling weak and fatigued. Iron can be found in meat and seafood. You could also take iron supplements.
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Lifestyle & Culture

We all make mistakes; don’t punish yourself forever

When it comes to the mistakes that you have made, you cannot punish yourself forever. You need to find a way to let go of what you have done and find a way to move forward.



Let’s be honest, at one point or another we will all make a mistake. Some mistakes are minimal, like forgetting to pick up your dry cleaning or accidentally banging someone else’s car, but other mistakes are a little larger and more difficult to shake. The fact is that after making a mistake it is not always easy to move past it, is it? This is especially true if the mistake that you have made is a rather significant one.


After making a sizeable mistake, be it a mistake at work that’s cost your boss thousands of dollars, an accident that led to your child getting hurt, or something that meant you broke the law, it’s important to remember that you can’t punish yourself forever. Admittedly, after making a mistake you’re going to feel bad about it, but you cannot keep constantly blaming yourself. The fact is that we all make mistakes, and forgiving yourself is part of the process of moving forward.

Wondering what it takes not to want to punish yourself forever? Below are a few tips and pieces of advice for ways in which you can move past a mistake that you’ve made. 

Forgive yourself 

If the mistake that you’ve made is one that you never wanted to make and has had a serious impact on your life or the lives of others, it can be exceedingly difficult to forgive yourself. However, if you have any chance of being able to move your life forward, first you need to start working towards forgiving yourself. You need to remember that everyone makes mistakes – granted some mistakes are larger than others, but that doesn’t mean that you can’t come back from them. However, if you’re going to come back from them, you need to start forgiving yourself. 

Fight for your future 

In order to be able to move on with your life after making a serious mistake, you need to think about how you are going to fight for your future. Say, for instance, you made a mistake that lead to a crime being committed, you might feel like you have no chance of a future. However, that is not necessarily the case. If you take the time to find a board certified criminal defense attorney who is willing to help defend your case, then you might have a chance of having the future that you want, after all. 

Move on 

When it comes to the mistakes that you have made, you cannot punish yourself forever. You need to find a way to let go of what you have done and find a way to move forward; otherwise, you will just be punishing yourself forever. When it comes to moving on, think about what you would like from your future – ask yourself, where you would like to be in five or ten years time. Just because things aren’t great right now, that doesn’t mean that you can’t have the future that you want to have. 

The fact is that we all make mistakes, but it’s how you handle those mistakes that defines you. 

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Lifestyle & Culture

Top careers for promising future

If you are going to graduate soon from school, you can check the forecast for the future employment market and choose a specialization based on the obtained data. But if you are a student already and you don’t want to miss the opportunity to bet a well-paid promising position, it is still possible to enroll in a course or study supplementary disciplines.



The contemporary world is rapidly changing. Some professions have become obsolete, while new ones appear. This imposes additional requirements on students who need to decide which specialization to choose and which profession to opt for. How to be sure that a specialization you have been focusing on for the last five years won’t become unnecessary in the nearest future?

If you are going to graduate soon from school, you can check the forecast for the future employment market and choose a specialization based on the obtained data. But if you are a student already and you don’t want to miss the opportunity to bet a well-paid promising position, it is still possible to enroll in a course or study supplementary disciplines. Of course, it is hard to combine the regular curriculum with additional subjects. In this case, one can resort to diverse services and pay for essay writing or accomplishing diverse tasks. Thus, if you have decided to focus on the professions of the future, here are the fields to consider.

1. Healthcare

Taking into account the problems of the year 2020, as well as the problem of the aging population, the specialists in the field of healthcare (doctors, nurses, physical therapists, pharmacists, home health aids) will be in demand, and this demand will be increasing. To get a well-paid position as a doctor, you need to be good at math and sciences, as well as to enjoy working with people. Besides, the process of education is quite long and requires a lot of effort. 

2. Information Technology

There is no need to explain why this field is promising. More and more gadgets are appearing daily. Talking about the field of IT, these are not just programmers, developers, and network administrators that are going to be in demand. This field has already incorporated a lot of Internet-related professions that deal with advertising, marketing, and promotion.

The niche of Information Technology seems to be boundless nowadays. Even if you are not sure that you are capable of programming, working with codes, or designing your own products, there are plenty of professions that can be mastered thanks to hard work and proactivity.

3. Alternative Energy

Humanity is not yet ready to say goodbye to oil and gas. However, the use of unrenewable sources that pollute the environment has been a challenge of recent decades. Therefore, specialists working in the niche of renewable energy, i.e., wind, solar, hydrogen, geothermal power, etc., will be in high demand.

Besides, the niche will need diverse specialties from developers and scientists to effective managers and technicians. More and more colleges and universities are now opening departments that focus on research in the field of environment protection and ecology.

4. International Law

Even though the world is becoming more and more globalized, international relations do not cease to be important. Thus, specialists in this field will be always in demand. Aside from law, it is also possible to focus on economic matters on an international scale.

5. Financial Analysts

The economic crisis has proven that the need for financial advisors is not ceasing. Professionals of the financial sector can work as investors and business owners, as well as advisors who will provide recommendations to businesses and individuals. The matter of money is always important, therefore, the demand for these specialists won’t cease.

6. Content & Marketing

Business promotion (by all the possible channels) will foresee the necessity to create diverse content, from textual to photos and videos, as well as to correctly present and promote this content. To a certain extent, these specialties are related to the field of IT, however, these professions are less technical but more creative.

As you can see, the fields with a promising future are diverse. There are lots of professions that are expected to be necessary and popular for a decade or even more. So, if you start thinking about your future today and focus on one of the required fields, you will become one of the demanded specialists with a stable income in the future. 

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Health & Wellness

Experiencing police violence worsens mental health in distinct ways

Simply put, the experience of police violence puts Black, Latino, Indigenous, and sexual minority communities at higher risk of distinct mental health problems, in addition to greater risk of death at the hands of police.



Photo by Daria Sannikova from

The experience of police violence is associated with mental and emotional trauma distinct from that caused by other kinds of violence, creating a public health crisis for communities most affected.

Simply put, the experience of police violence puts Black, Latino, Indigenous, and sexual minority communities at higher risk of distinct mental health problems, in addition to greater risk of death at the hands of police, according to the paper.

The study is authored by a group of researchers at several universities, including UC Riverside, who have been examining the mental health effects of police violence at the population level for several years.

“It’s a public health issue because police violence is not experienced equally in our society but instead has a disproportionate effect on the mental health of racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities,” said Bruce Link, a UC Riverside distinguished professor of sociology and public policy. “The point of our paper is to indicate why the experience of police violence is uniquely stressful and therefore particularly impactful.”

People who have experienced police violence have few options for redress. They must report incidents to the same police departments that abused them in the first place.

Psychologists agree that trauma spurs biological or psychological changes that manifest over time as psychiatric symptoms, particularly when the trauma is sexually or physically violent. Research on stressful life events, especially uncontrollable events, has attempted to provide a broader framework for how stress may affect a person’s usual activities, goals, and values, but until recently this approach has not been applied to police violence.

Link, along with Jordan DeVylder of Fordham University and Lisa Fedina of the University of Michigan, reviewed numerous studies of the effects of police violence on mental health in a paper called “Impact of police violence on mental health: a theoretical framework,” and identified eight factors distinct to police violence.

Police violence is state sanctioned

Unlike most other forms of violence, police violence is embedded in a history of state-enforced practices that permitted cruel, unusual, and dehumanizing punishment of individuals deemed to be from so-called “dangerous classes,” particularly Blacks. Communities of color and LGBTQ communities have been historically subjected to discriminatory laws, such as Jim Crow laws and sodomy laws, which permitted harassment and excessive and fatal force against individuals from these communities.

The police are a pervasive presence

Police are everywhere, especially in low-income communities of color. People who have experienced violent or stressful encounters with police have no way to avoid being around constant reminders of these painful experiences, or the fear of future encounters.

There are limited options for recourse

People who have experienced police violence have few options for redress. They must report incidents to the same police departments that abused them in the first place. Police are authorized to use force in a wide variety of situations and survivors have to prove that the violence was not legitimate. Because they have few options for reporting an incident, for legal recourse, or for advocacy services and referrals to mental health treatment, any mental health symptoms they have may worsen over time.

Police culture deters internal accountability

Violence committed through institutions, rather than interpersonal relationships, is supported by organizational cultures that condone it. Police often maintain a code of silence around violence and therefore often fail to hold each other accountable. This amounts to gaslighting survivors who do report incidents, potentially worsening mental health symptoms.

Police violence alters deeply held beliefs

Many are taught that police protect them and their communities from various dangers and help in emergencies. A single violent encounter can shatter this belief for an individual, but when police violence is the norm, instead of an isolated incident, the community at large loses trust in the police as an institution and, often correctly, comes to regard them as part of the problem.

Racial and economic disparities in exposure

Police violence is disproportionately directed at people of color, especially Blacks and Latinos, potentially leading to diminished feelings of self-worth and value within American society.

Police violence is stigmatizing

Because police are allowed to use force in many situations, survivors of police violence are often blamed for the encounter. Their actions are heavily scrutinized and faulted to justify the officers’ actions, especially by members of groups that benefit from the social order policing upholds. Moreover, many people have friends and relatives who work as police officers, making it feel like a betrayal to report incidents of police violence.

Police are typically armed

Unlike police in many countries, American police carry firearms and police departments have become heavily militarized. Police are given broad latitude to determine when and how to deploy force. Every interaction with police holds the possibility of violence, and for communities subjected to routine overpolicing, this threat brings additional challenges for mental health.

The researchers call for a framework to examine the mental health consequences of police violence that takes into account these points. However, implicit in their analysis are solutions for the public health crisis caused by police violence, such as demilitarizing police, holding police accountable when untoward events occur, ending the overpolicing of communities of color, providing better reporting options and support for survivors of police violence, and policies that build mutual trust between police and the communities they are meant to serve.

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