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No longer just for gay trysts…

Geosocial networking apps get criticized as just good for picking up. But research from Blued showed that more users actually create profile to “make or find friends to form a community”, topping looking for BF or even – get this! – looking for a sex partner. For media educator and advocacy filmmaker Libay Linsangan Cantor: “The basic human need to connect, plus the easier access to technology, is the winning combo here… Development is always a good thing if it serves some basic human purpose.”

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Aaron Bonette was around 15 or 16 years old when he first created an account in Guys4Men.com, a now-defunct gay-centric social networking site. At that time he was still based in Lucena City, some 152 kilometers south of Metro Manila, where he lived with his mother and a younger sister. “I was still unsure, perhaps even confused about my sexuality then,” Aaron recalled. “At that time, I really had no one to talk to about what I was going through.”

Aaron remembers sneaking out to go to a computer shop “just to open this gay-centric social networking site,” he said. And even when already online, “I was somewhat paranoid, chatting only after making sure no one around me saw the site I logged into.”

But once logged in, Aaron said it was like entering a “completely different world, where there were other people like me with whom I could confidently speak with with discretion.”

Now 23 years old and based in Makati City, Aaron said that in hindsight, “I guess that gay ‘space’, even if online, helped me discover myself.” In fact, since those days of sneaking out, he was able to form close friendships with some people from various gay-centric social networking sites (and nowadays, geosocial networking applications/apps). “I’ve come to realize that we can make these sites as spaces where we can be free, enjoy a sense of belongingness, and look for someone to share and enjoy that sense of freedom.”

And in the current analysis of gay-centric social networking sites/geosocial networking applications (apps), this value is often relegated – if mentioned at all – to the more generally accepted raison d’être of accessing them just to find sexual partners.

TRUTH IN THE STEREOTYPE

There’s no going around the fact that the impetus of gay-centric social networking sites like the aforementioned Guys4Men.com and its ilk Adam4Adam and ManHunt, and their more current iterations, the geosocial networking applications (apps) like Grindr, Jack’d, Scruff, Tinder and Hornet was to primarily connect users to enjoy the proverbial “joys of the flesh”.

Speaking to Outrage Magazine from Roxas City in the Province of Capiz in Eastern Visayas, 29-year-old Simplicio Vito Jr. bluntly said that “I created accounts (in the apps) to get fucking buddies,” he laughed. “I may be wrong here, but isn’t that why most join these sites to begin with?”

Simplicio isn’t alone with this line of thinking.

In Las Piñas City, 30-year-old Ayem Tan said that “to be completely honest, I created accounts (when I was 23) so that I could meet other gay guys for sex.”

When they created accounts in these apps, both Simplicio and Ayem weren’t out yet and were therefore largely unfamiliar with the gay scenes where they were based, much more how to navigate the gay scene.

“I didn’t even know where gay guys hang out, or – even if I knew – how to make ‘awra (approach them)’, so picking up online was a no-brainer for me,” said Ayem who, when he started using the apps, only just broke up with a girlfriend.

This does not come as a surprise to Evan Tan, country marketing manager for the Philippines of Blued. “We don’t discount the fact that (gay) apps do help people look for sex,” he said.

But this is not all there is to it, said Tan. “What we can say though is that, from what we’ve seen, there’s (a sizable number of people who) put primary importance in looking for friends, a community they can belong to, or a romantic partner,” Tan said.

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NOT CAST IN STONE

Tan ought to know what he’s talking about.

When Blued conducted a research of its users, the main reason cited by those surveyed on why they created a Blued profile to begin with was to “make or find friends to form a community” (13,204 respondents).  Looking for BF as a reason only came second (11,092 respondents), while – get this! – looking for a sex partner came in last among the options, with only 6,094 respondents claiming this as a reason for creating a Blued account.

Community formation as a priority may be said to be not surprising since – still in Blued’s study – a big percentage of those surveyed were still not out. Specifically, only 37.4% were out to close friends, and less than 10% (or 9.7%) claimed that their family knows of their sexual orientation/gender identity.

According to Libay Linsangan Cantor, media educator and advocacy filmmaker, the evolution of forming groups/finding friends, with a growing number of LGBT people now doing this online, is not surprising.

In 2013, Cantor conducted a study on online homosocialization in the Philippines. In this study, she found that the middle to lower classes created groups online that were eventually appropriated offline; some of these online groups are the so-called “clans”, which are informal groups of LGBT people whose initial – if not main – mode of contact/staying together is with the use of tech.

“These online platforms served as the entry points of the queer doors one would want to enter, and queers had the luxury to choose which doors they want to enter, to have those connections they seek,” Cantor said.

For Cantor, “the basic human need to connect, plus the easier access to technology, is the winning combo here… Development is always a good thing if it serves some basic human purpose. If it lessens the queer depression and suicide rates, then yes, it’s good. Not all humans are designed the same way, so if this tech thing helps some people cope with life better, then that will always be a good thing.”

HELPING MECHANISM

In a way, however, Blued is helped by its being different particularly when compared with other LGBT-targeting apps.

“Unlike other apps that were developed in countries that were friendlier towards members of the LGBT community, Blued originated from China, which is less open to gay men,” Tan said. “These gay men sought other people who shared the same experiences as they did, and Blued became the channel where they can discuss their shared experiences. This may have set the purpose for the app itself as it expanded to other places: more than sex, which is not bad, this is a place to meet friends and form relationships.”

Blued was launched in 2012 by Geng Le (a.k.a. Ma Baoli), a married former police officer in northern China. For 12 years, he secretly managed Danlan.org, a website for gay people. But his superiors discovered the website also in 2012, and Geng Le lost his family and job. It was this that drove him to create Blued

Many gay men – arguably particularly those who are exposed to Western (e.g. American) media – are familiar with Grindr, another geo-based dating app, which was established in 2009. The popular app counted four million users in 192 countries in 2012, growing to 10 million in 2016. As per Grindr data, it now has 2.4 million active users every day.

Surprisingly, Grindr’s numbers are not even half Blued’s, which now counts 27 million users (majority of them still in its country of origin, China), making it the largest gay social network in the world. Every day, Blued sees active use from 11 million pax.

Again, this popularity may illustrate how an app can become a safe space. After all, if a gay American opts not to use Grindr, he can always go to a gay bar, which is something not afforded other people in other contexts (for instance in far-flung areas in China, or even in the likes of Lucena City or Roxas City).

In the Philippines, Blued has about half a million users, with most between 19-32 years old. A big bulk of the current members come from Quezon City, San Juan City, Makati City, Banugao, Bacoor and Bacolod.

Not surprisingly, even Grindr has been evolving – if not the approach, then at least its market base. In a survey involving 2,500 users, almost half (or 47%) said they formed close friendships through the app, perhaps also showing that not everyone is just searching for ‘Mr. Right Now’.

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Cantor said that “we have to remember that LGBT people redefined the definition of the ‘closet’ since not all queer lives can be displayed outside confidently, for oppressive and marginalized reasons we already know. Online life became like one important and highly significant window from where closeted queers can still see and connect with the outside world while ‘comfortably’ ensconced in their closets. This lessens many negative things that closeted queers previously handled alone and in the proverbial dark: isolation, self-doubt/hate/loathing/denial, depression, and even suicidal thoughts,” she said. “The online world lets us see that there are so many of us out there pala, like we are not alone in feeling the things we feel which society deem as ‘abnormal’ or ‘being deviant’, et cetera. That there are people like us out there who successfully navigate this judgmental world, whether their victories are small or huge, that’s such an important thing to see, witness, and realize. In a way, online connections have empowered queer people to reach out to others and connect in small ways or big ways.”

For Cantor, people gravitating towards friendships formed online is “but the next natural progression of being human, even if it feels artificial sometimes because technology use is involved. But remove tech and you still get that fundamental need of humans to connect. So this is why I believe we shouldn’t demonize this new way of ‘making friends’.”

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INTENT (AND CONTENT) VARIATION

This is also why the drive for Blued, said Tan, goes beyond just helping people pick up, but to “help people find friends and a community.” With this intent, the app is therefore atypical when compared to other similar apps.

“Blued actually allows you to add friends, join groups, and even broadcast your hobbies and interests to other people,” Tan said. “We encourage people to keep it wholesome, because ultimately, they can always go to other apps if they’re just solely looking for sex. We want Blued to be more than just that. We want it to be a safe space where people can be who they are, without fear of judgment or discrimination.”

Blued features include: verification to guarantee that people have been manually authenticated as genuine profiles by Blued’s moderation team; ability to go live within a community of peers and to show what life is like around them; feeds to allow users to scroll through a stream of photos or videos posted by guys they have chosen to follow; grid that displays nearby profiles by distance, and users can either follow those profiles or engage in one-to-one conversations; and – obviously – the groups that allow the online homosocialization to develop/happen.

For Tan, the approach makes Blued more similar to Facebook than other hook-up apps.

No matter the form, Cantor said that online platforms are where people search for like-minded individuals first, then they bring the interaction offline via EBs (eyeball, usually one-on-one meetings) and meet-ups (for groups). “Early chatrooms like FLO (Filipino Lesbians Online) inside Gay.com’s women chatrooms pioneered this, followed by Friendster, and then later Facebook and Twitter. Now, there are the apps,” she said. “That basic need to connect — for friendship or love – never changes, even if media platforms for doing that changes in leaps and bounds.”

NATURAL PROGRESSIONS

Twenty-three-year-old Aaron recognizes that “there may be differences in the approaches with making friends online/virtually versus making friends in the physical world. However, these differences eventually disappear once we get to know people – meet them to have drinks, catch up for coffee, watch flicks, and so on. By then, the only thing that will matter is having met someone who you can truly call as a friend, regardless if you first met him virtually or in the physical world.” 

Las Piñas City-based Ayem agrees, considering that “since coming out gay after breaking up with my long-term girlfriend, I found most of my gay and bi friends from virtual communities,” he said. “Finding one good friend from (these apps) is good enough as it has a snowball effect; just find one and he can introduce you to his other friends. And before you know it, you find yourself a new tropa/barkada.”

Admittedly, there continue to be challenges. Simplicio from Roxas City, for one, said that meeting someone from online can be impersonal. “At times,” he said, “it’s like you’re talking to a robot. You cannot necessarily feel the sincerity of the person, and sometimes you can’t even understand each other.”

Then there are the “fakers”, Ayem said. “The person you might be talking to will be using a different picture or super filtered picture. They could pretend to be somebody they’re not.”

But “as it is in the physical world, you really just have to get to know people better,” Ayem said. And with this way of looking, “the onus is on you to take caution.”

For Cantor, “we still need to touch and kiss each other, right? And hello, sex! So no, these online worlds are just there for us to ‘shop around’ the market. And when we’ve picked our choices, we bring the online choice to the offline world, where the next level of exploration and interaction happens. This may seem very transactional, but isn’t that what love and friendship’s about, too?”

Cantor also recommends cautiousness.  “Just don’t easily invest emotionally on every Tomasa, Darya or Henrietta who smiles at you, pokes you endlessly, winks, sends love-likes, whatever. The one thing that differentiates online interactions from offline is that you don’t easily see or feel the other person’s response, or responses can be faked. Anonymity is also a crucial hurdle here, since it’s also fairly easy for someone to pose as another person, or to hide one’s real persona, from the person they’re talking to,” she said. “Folks, common sense should still prevail, even online — especially online!”

“There’s a lot of BFF success stories out there that started virtually,” Aaron said. “I think you just have to have an open mind. And – perhaps just as important – recognize that there are those who, like me when I was still new to all these, have no other means of being with people like us but through these. Because yes, (the much maligned gay pick-up apps) can be more than just for gay trysts.”

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Phl votes for LGBTQIA rights at UN Human Rights Council

The UNHRC adopted a resolution to renew the mandate of the Independent Expert focusing on the protection against violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity.

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ALL PHOTOS TAKEN DURING METRO MANILA PRIDE PARADE 2019

The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) adopted a resolution to renew the mandate of the Independent Expert focusing on the protection against violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI).

The resolution was adopted by a vote of 27 in favor, with 12 voting against and seven abstentions.

Now this is worth highlighting: The Philippines voted in favor of the resolution.

The Philippines’ UN voting history vis-à-vis LGBTQIA people has been inconsistent. In 2016, when the UNHRC adopted the resolution on “protection against violence and discrimination based on SOGI (which created the post for the Independent Expert), the Philippines abstained from voting for the resolution. It was then under the presidency of Benign Aquino III.

Also to date, the country still does not have a national anti-discrimination policy protecting the human rights of LGBTQIA Filipinos, even if various versions of the anti-discrimination bill (ADB) have been filed in the Upper and Lower Houses of Congress for 20 years now. In 2017, during the last – 17th – Congress, it passed the House of Representatives; but its counterpart version in the Senate failed to gain traction.

Created in 2016, the UN Independent Expert on SOGI has been supported by a growing number of States from all over the world. This new resolution to create and renew the mandate was presented by a Core Group of seven Latin American countries – Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico and Uruguay.

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The UN Independent Expert on SOGI is tasked with assessing implementation of existing international human rights law, by talking to States, and working collaboratively with other UN and regional mechanisms to address violence and discrimination. Through the work of this mandate since 2016, the impact of criminalization of same-sex relations and lack of legal gender recognition, the importance of data-collection specific to SOGI communities, and examples of good practices to prevent discrimination have been highlighted globally, with visits to Argentina, Georgia, Mozambique and Ukraine.

As a top-to-bottom approach, however, the immediate impact of the UN Independent Expert on SOGI on grassroots LGBTQIA activism remains a sore issue for those critical of its.

The renewal process of the mandate had to overcome 10 hostile amendments, but the core of the resolution in affirming the universal nature of international human rights law stands firm.

RESULTS OF THE VOTE

Voting in favor of the resolution

Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Fiji, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay

Voting against the resolution

Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Eritrea, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia

Abstaining on the resolution

Angola, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Hungary, India, Senegal, Togo

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SOGIE Equality Bill filed anew in 18th Congress

In the Lower House, Lumad leader-turned-Bayan Muna Rep. Eufemia Cullamat has refiled the SOGIE Equality Bill as House Bill 258. Meanwhile, in the Upper House, Akbayan Sen. Risa Hontiveros refiled the bill as Senate Bill 159, one of her priority measures.

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ALL PHOTOS TAKEN DURING METRO MANILA PRIDE PARADE 2019

We continue to #ResistTogether.

Versions of the Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Gender Expression (SOGIE) Equality Bill have been re-filed in the Lower and Upper Houses of Congress.

In the Lower House, Lumad leader-turned-Bayan Muna Rep. Eufemia Cullamat has refiled the SOGIE Equality Bill as House Bill 258. Co-authors are Bayan Muna Reps. Karlos Ysagani Zarate and Ferdinand Gaite.

Meanwhile, in the Upper House, Akbayan Sen. Risa Hontiveros refiled the bill as Senate Bill 159, one of her priority measures.

The explanatory note of HB 258 talks about intersectionality, stating that “LGBT (people) often find it difficult to exercise their rights as persons, laborers, professionals, and ordinary citizens.”

For instance, “LGBT students are denied admission or expelled from school due to their sexual orientation or gender identity. Companies block the promotion and stymie the career advancement of gay or lesbian employees due to the deeply embedded notion that homosexuality denotes weakness. Laws such as the current anti-vagrancy law are also abused by the law enforcement agencies to harass gay men.”

Incidentally, the latter – i.e. anti-vagrancy law – was repealed in March 2012 (via Republic Act 10158), but members of the LGBTQIA community (particularly gay and bisexual men) often still fall prey victim to harassment by law enforcers.

“It is therefore imperative to define and penalize practices that discriminate against LGBT (people),” continued the explanatory note of HB 258.

Hontiveros, for her part, said the time has come for the enactment of the SOGIE Bill; even vowing that the incoming Congress will be a “massive victory against hate and discrimination.”

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“If the Senate’s 17th Congress was a big win for women and health, the 18th Congress will be a massive victory against hate and discrimination. The SOGIE Equality Bill will pass. It is a measure whose time has come,” Hontiveros said.

In 2017, the House of Representatives actually passed the SOGIE Equality Bill. The Senate’s version, however, did not gain the final approval of the 17th Congress.

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Over 50,000 parade for Pride in Metro Manila

The Pride-goers gathered not just to show force and then party, but also to highlight the need to create safe spaces for LGBTQIA Filipinos.

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Growing rainbow number.

Over 50,000 people gathered in Marikina City to attend the annual LGBTQIA Pride parade in a largely disorganized event affected by sporadic downpours and marred by event planning/execution issues. The Pride-goers gathered not just to show force and then party, but also to highlight the need to create safe spaces for LGBTQIA Filipinos.

While confusion continued to exist even during Pride day about what revelers were supposed to #ResistTogether – this year’s catchy theme – there was at least a call to recognize the sector (particularly with the number) by passing the anti-discrimination bill (ADB) that has been pending in Congress for two decades now.

And despite the numbers fascination, the total number of attendees is still undetermined even with the mandatory/forced registration of all participants (else not be allowed entry into the premises), with the information desk “told to say it’s 52,000” while a host inconsistently bragged figures reaching 70,000. All the same, this year’s number easily eclipsed last year’s estimated 25,000 revelers.

Notably, this year’s gathering attempted to “return” the format to the older Pride parades in Metro Manila by allowing various groups/organizations to speak onstage, as opposed to only those affiliated with the political party/leaning of the organizing Metro Manila Pride.

According to Regie Pasion, who helms LGBTbus, the Marikina-based LGBTQIA organization that helped in organizing this year’s Pride (and the gatherings in 2017 and 2018), “at it’s core, Pride remains a protest” and “will remain so until LGBTQIA human rights are recognized”.

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Locally, for Marikina, while the ADB continues to languish, the city’s mayor Marcy R. Teodoro signed the local anti-discrimination ordinance (ADO), passed ahead of the Pride parade. In signing, Teodoroo said that the ADO will “nagbibigay sa lahat ng pantay at parehong karapatan sa trabaho, edukasyon, tirahan, at mga serbisyo ng pamahalaan (give everyone equal right to access education, work, accommodation and government services).”

The same ADO was passed after Marikina hosted the Pride parade for three years; pushed exclusively by the local LGBTQIA community.

Coming from Lucena City to attend the 2019 Pride parade, Aaron Moises Bonette of QZN Pride and Bahaghari QZN said that the challenge remains “for us to utilize this same number to take the same streets to fight for our actual rights (and not just to parade),” he said.

Last year’s Pride parade, for instance, may have gathered over 20,000 revelers, but when it came to rally for the ADB, the organizers were not able to attract 50 participants.

“Don’t get me wrong: Reaching this big number is admirable. But Pride shouldn’t start and end in June. It should be done every day (hopefully by as many, or even by more) people until we are treated as equals. Otherwise, this thing we call ‘pride’ is but an ideal,” Bonette ended.

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Now illegal to discriminate against LGBTQIA people in Marikina

Marikina City joins the list of local government units (LGUs) that now has an anti-discrimination policy that eyes to protect the human rights of its LGBTQIA constituents. Offenders may be penalized from P1,000 (first offense) to P2,000/P5,000 (second and third-time offenders), along with imprisonment of up to 15 days.

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The rainbow cometh.

Marikina City has joined the list of local government units (LGUs) that now has an anti-discrimination policy that eyes to protect the human rights of its LGBTQIA constituents.

The host of Metro Manila Pride parade since 2017, the city was also – for a while – under scrutiny for claiming to be pro-LGBTQIA but with (seemingly) limited LGBTQIA-related efforts topped by the once-a-year parade held in June.

But the ordinance introduced by councilors Paul Dayao, Mario de Leon, Manuel Sarmiento and Zifred Ancheta eyes to make it a policy of the city to hold non-discrimination of LGBTQIA people (at least there).

Discriminatory acts included in the ADO include: employment- and school-related discrimination; refusal to provide goods/services/accommodation because of a person’s SOGIE; and by subjecting (verbally or by writing) people to ridicule because of their SOGIE.

Offenders may be penalized from P1,000 (first offense) to P2,000/P5,000 (second and third-time offenders), along with imprisonment of up to 15 days.

The ordinance introduced by councilors Paul Dayao, Mario de Leon, Manuel Sarmiento and Zifred Ancheta eyes to make it a policy of the city to hold non-discrimination of LGBTQIA people (at least there).

Surprisingly, while the ADO is creating an Anti-discrimination Mediation and Conciliation Board to deal with ADO-related violations, no LGBTQIA organization/party will be among the board members.

The ADO is awaiting the signature of Marikina Mayor Marcy R. Teodoro, though this is already expected. In 2018, Teodoro told Outrage Magazine that hosting Pride is a way to show the city’s support to Metro Manila’s LGBTQI community, particularly since his office in particular supports this community’s push for a nationally enacted anti-discrimination policy. In the end, Teodoro said, “we want to be known as an inclusive community. We can only do that by recognizing everybody as all equal to each other.”

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Sexuality continues to change and develop well into adulthood – study

Substantial changes in attractions, partners, and sexual identity are common from late adolescence to the early 20s, and from the early 20s to the late 20s, indicating that sexual orientation development continues long past adolescence into adulthood. The results also show distinct development pathways for men and women, with female sexuality being more fluid over time.

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Photo by Sharon McCutcheon from Unsplash.com

Traditional labels of ‘gay’, ‘bisexual’ and ‘straight’ do not capture the full range of human sexuality, and whether a person is attracted to the same, or opposite sex can change over time.

This is according to a study, published in the Journal of Sex Research, which analyzed surveys from around 12,000 students, and found that substantial changes in attractions, partners, and sexual identity are common from late adolescence to the early 20s, and from the early 20s to the late 20s, indicating that sexual orientation development continues long past adolescence into adulthood. The results also show distinct development pathways for men and women, with female sexuality being more fluid over time.

“Sexual orientation involves many aspects of life, such as who we feel attracted to, who we have sex with, and how we self-identify,” said Christine Kaestle, a professor of developmental health at Virginia Tech. “Until recently, researchers have tended to focus on just one of these aspects, or dimensions, to measure and categorize people. However, that may oversimplify the situation. For example, someone may self-identify as heterosexual while also reporting relationships with same-sex partners.”

In order to take all of the dimensions of sexuality into account over time, Kaestle used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, which tracked American students from the ages of 16-18 into their late twenties and early thirties. At regular points in time, participants were questioned about what gender/s they were attracted to, the gender of their partners, and whether they identified as ‘straight’, ‘gay’ or ‘bisexual’.

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The results showed that some people’s sexual orientation experiences vary over time, and the traditional three categories of ‘straight’, ‘bisexual’ and ‘gay’ are insufficient to describe the diverse patterns of attraction, partners, and identity over time. The results indicated that such developmental patterns are better described in nine categories – differing for both men and women.

For young men these patterns have been categorized as:

    null
  • ‘straight’ (87%),
  • ‘mostly straight or bi'(3.8%),
  • ’emerging gay’ (2.4%)
  • minimal sexual expression’ (6.5%).

Young women on the other hand were better described by five categories:

    null
  • ‘straight’ (73.8%),
  • ‘mostly straight discontinuous’ (10.1%),
  • ’emerging bi’ (7.5%),
  • ’emerging lesbian’ (1.5%)
  • ‘minimal sexual expression’ (7%).

Straight people made up the largest group and showed the least change in sexual preferences over time. Interestingly, men were more likely than women to be straight – almost nine out of 10 men, compared to less than three-quarters of women.

Men and women in the middle of the sexuality spectrum, as well as those in the ’emerging’ gay and lesbian groups showed the most changes over time.

For example, 67% of women in the ‘mostly straight discontinuous’ group were attracted to both sexes in their early 20s. However, this number dropped to almost zero by their late 20s, by which time the women reported only being attracted to the opposite sex.

Overall, women showed greater fluidity in sexual preference over time. They were more likely (one in six) to be located in the middle of the sexuality continuum and to be bisexual.

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Fewer than one in 25 men fell in the middle of the spectrum; they were more likely to be at either end of the spectrum, as either ‘straight’ or ’emerging gay’. Relatively few women were classed as ’emerging lesbian’.

“In the emerging groups, those who have sex in their teens mostly start with other-sex partners and many report other-sex attractions during their teens,” Kaestle said of her findings. “Then they gradually develop and progress through adjacent categories on the continuum through the early 20s to ultimately reach the point in the late 20s when almost all Emerging Bi females report both-sex attractions, almost all Emerging Gay males report male-only attractions, and almost all Emerging Lesbian females report female-only attractions.”

Kaestle said that the study demonstrates young adulthood is still a very dynamic time for sexual orientation development.

“The early 20s are a time of increased independence and often include greater access to more liberal environments that can make the exploration, questioning, or acknowledging of same-sex attractions more acceptable and comfortable at that age. At the same time – as more people pair up in longer term committed relationships as young adulthood progresses – this could lead to fewer identities and attractions being expressed that do not match the sex of the long-term partner, leading to a kind of bi-invisibility,” said Kaestle.

For Kaestle, “we will always struggle with imposing categories onto sexual orientation. Because sexual orientation involves a set of various life experiences over time, categories will always feel artificial and static.”

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Importantly, although the study found nine categories of sexual orientation development, limitations in the statistical methods used mean that more categories could exist.

The names of the categories are also in no way meant to replace or contradict any person’s current self-labelled identity. Rather, Kaestle hopes that these findings will help researchers in the future to better understand how a range of sexual orientation experiences and patterns over time can shape sexual minorities’ experience of distinct health disadvantages, and the effects of discrimination.

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Transgender people are not mentally ill, says WHO

The new classification is not expected to affect the healthcare provision to respond to the needs of transgender people, but – all the same – it’s expected to improve social acceptance among transgender people while still making important health resources available.

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Photo by Cecilie Johnsen from Unsplash.com

The World Health Organization (WHO) has decreed that transgender people are not mentally ill, with the WHO’s legislative body voting to move the term used to describe transgender people – “gender incongruence” – to the panel’s sexual health chapter from its mental disorders chapter.

The new standard of classification appears in the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11); but will go into effect on January 1, 2022.

The WHO uses “gender incongruence” to describe people whose gender identity is different from the gender they were assigned at birth.

The new classification is not expected to affect the healthcare provision to respond to the needs of transgender people, but – all the same – it’s expected to improve social acceptance among transgender people while still making important health resources available, according to the United Nations health agency last year when it announced the intended change.

Dr. Jack Drescher, a member of the ICD-11 working group, wrote: “There is substantial evidence that the stigma associated with the intersection of transgender status and mental disorders contributes to precarious legal status [and] human rights violations”.

It is worth noting that the WHO still classifies intersex traits as “disorders of sex development”.

This is not the first time the ICD changed a classification related to sexuality. In 1990, the WHO declared that “sexual orientation alone is not to be regarded as a disorder.”

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