Connect with us

POZ

Lesson from mother of HIV+ son: ‘Give love when it’s more needed’

When Minerva’s son tested HIV-positive, she was initially shocked… and then saddened. Eventually, though, “there’s this surrender to the fact that a loved one is infected with HIV,” she said, “and that we should do what we can do to help out.”

THIS IS NOT A PHOTO OF THE SUBJECT OF THE ARTICLE, BUT IS USED HERE ONLY AS REPRESENTATION

Published

on

This is part of “More than a Number”, which Outrage Magazine launched on March 1, 2013 to give a human face to those infected and affected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the Philippines, what it considers as “an attempt to tell the stories of those whose lives have been touched by HIV and AIDS”. More information about (or – for that matter – to be included in) “More than a Number”, email editor@outragemag.com, or call (+63) 9287854244 and (+63) 9157972229.

Minerva*, who is in her 40s, was in the hospital room when “the doctor came in to tell my son he’s HIV positive,” she said. “There were just the two of us then; his father wasn’t with us as he had to be at work, and his younger siblings were all at school.”

More than the shock, though, it was “with sadness – and even some relief – that I received the news.”

Apparently, at that time, Minerva’s son was already in the hospital for weeks, and “walang gamot na nagpapagaling sa kanya (no medication was working for him),” she said. In fact, “mas lumala ang kalagayan niya (his situation seemed to worsen).”

They were already spending, on average, “around P47,000 per week, so it was getting expensive.” And so, while there’s sadness in her son getting infected with HIV, it was with “relief that we accepted the news; at least this time, we know what ailed him, and kung may magagawa pa, gagawin namin (if something can still be done, we’ll take these steps).”

READ:  Condom use pushed to deal with HIV

And that was how Minerva found herself accompanying her son – in one of his “up” days, considering that he’s been mostly weak – to a treatment hub so he can start taking his medication.

In so many ways, Minerva is at a loss – she continues not to have proper information about HIV. In fact, she said, “ni hindi ko alam ang kaibahan ng HIV sa AIDS (I don’t even know the difference between HIV and AIDS).”

Unfortunately, at least in her experience, “hubs aren’t there to serve us, people with loved ones infected with HIV,” she said. “No one’s here to even talk to us about our concerns.”

And so Minerva tried to chat with other women about her age, many of them – she assumed – also accompanying a loved one in the hub. The experiences, she said, are the same. “We’re just confused,” she said. “So many do not know how to deal with this as we move forward.”

It is because of this that Minerva said she hopes for “support system to be developed and be provided not only to those who are infected, but also to the people looking after them, too.”

But there is also another commonality – i.e. “There’s this surrender to the fact that a loved one is infected with HIV,” she said, “and that we should do what we can do to help out.”

Since Minerva’s son is the eldest child in the family, she said there’s no sense telling the “still young siblings about the situation of their kuya (elder brother).” In fact, Minerva and her son decided not to tell even the father about her son’s HIV status. She said that she is at a point where “ako man, marami pang dapat intindihin (even I still have a lot to understand).”

READ:  Meeting Jake...

But if there’s one thing Minerva said she learned, it’s acceptance.

Sa simula, tanggap ko nang bakla ang anak ko (From the very start, I already accepted my son’s gay),” Minerva said. And this is even if her son, himself, had issues about his sexual orientation, since “tinago-tago niya pa noon (he used to hide his sexuality in the past).”

And now that her son is HIV-positive, “mas lalo ko siyang tanggap (the more I accept him),” she said.

In fact, this is the lesson she can give others who may be in the same boat as her. “Kung mahal ninyo ang anak ninyo, mas lalo ninyo siyang mahalin ngayong mas kailangan (If you already profess your love to your child, love him more now when love is needed),” Minerva ended.

*NAME CHANGED AS REQUESTED BY THE INTERVIEWEE TO PROTECT HER PRIVACY

POZ

Two new algorithms can identify patients at risk of HIV

The final risk prediction model included such variables as sex, race, living in a neighborhood with high HIV incidence, use of medications for erectile dysfunction, and sexually-transmitted infection (STI) testing and positivity.

Published

on

Two new studies developed algorithms that can identify patients who are at risk of acquiring HIV and may benefit from preventive care. Both studies appear in the July issue of The Lancet HIV.

Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an antiretroviral pill that is over 90% effective in preventing HIV acquisition when taken as prescribed. PrEP was recently given a Grade A recommendation from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force but is vastly underutilized. There are nearly 40,000 new HIV infections annually in the United States, yet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that only 7% of the 1.1 million individuals at substantial risk for HIV infection used the antiretroviral pill in 2016.

One barrier to use is the difficulty for providers in identifying patients who are at high risk of HIV acquisition. Providers often have limited time, may have limited knowledge about PrEP, and may lack training in how to talk to patients about sex or substance use. Risk prediction tools, a form of electronic clinical decision support using the data in patients’ electronic health records (EHRs), are often used in other areas of medicine. Researchers from both studies, one using a patient population in California and the other in Massachusetts, built HIV risk prediction models that could be used in EHRs as automated screening tools for PrEP.

The two studies looked back at the medical records of millions of patients who were HIV-uninfected and had not yet used PrEP. Researchers extracted demographic and clinical data from these patients’ EHRs on numerous potential predictors of HIV risk. A machine-learning algorithm automatically selected important HIV risk-related variables for the final models.

READ:  Condom use pushed to deal with HIV

In the California-based study, which used medical record data of 3.7 million patients at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, the final risk prediction model included such variables as sex, race, living in a neighborhood with high HIV incidence, use of medications for erectile dysfunction, and sexually-transmitted infection (STI) testing and positivity. The model flagged 2% of the general patient population as potential PrEP candidates and identified 46% of male HIV cases, but none among females.

“Although risk prediction tools are imperfect and cannot replace the clinical judgement of skilled providers, our algorithms can help prompt discussions about PrEP with the patients who are most likely to benefit from it,” said Julia Marcus, PhD, MPH, lead author of the California-based study and Assistant Professor of Population Medicine at the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School.

The Massachusetts-based study used a patient population of 1.1 million patients at Atrius Health as well as the population of Fenway Health, an independent community health center in Boston specializing in sexual health care, to test performance in a new setting with higher rates of new HIV infection. The final risk prediction model included sex, race, primary language, as well as diagnoses, tests, or prescriptions for STIs. The model flagged 1.8% of the general patient population at Atrius Health and 15.3% of the population at Fenway Health as potential PrEP candidates. The model also identified 37.5% of new HIV cases at Atrius Health and 46.3% at Fenway Health.

READ:  Southern Tagalog raises the Rainbow Pride  

According to Douglas Krakower, MD, lead author of the Massachusetts-based study and Assistant Professor at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, and Harvard Medical School, “integrating these prediction models into primary care with routine, comprehensive HIV risk assessments by clinicians could play an important role in increasing the prescription of PrEP and preventing new HIV infections.”

Jonathan Volk, MD, senior author of the California-based study and an infectious disease physician at Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center added that “a recent publication by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in JAMA cites the lack of effective prediction models as a major gap in research that is critical to improving PrEP delivery. Our model helps fill that gap.”

The California study, titled “Use of electronic health record data and machine learning to identify potential candidates for HIV preexposure prophylaxis: a modelling study”, is co-authored by investigators from: Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center. The project was supported by the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Community Benefit Research Program, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the National Institute of Mental Health.

The Massachusetts study, titled “Development and validation of an automated HIV prediction algorithm to identify candidates for preexposure prophylaxis”, is co-authored by investigators from: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston Medical Center, Atrius Health, New England Quality Care Alliance, Brown University, The Fenway Institute, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. The project was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, Harvard University Center for AIDS Research, Providence/Boston Center for AIDS Research, Rhode Island IDeA-CTR, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the STD Surveillance Network.

READ:  On using drugs with adverse effects

Continue Reading

POZ

Greater prevalence of anal cancer precursors for women living with HIV than prior reports

The results call for new strategies to be developed for wider screening of women living with HIV, who have disproportionally higher rates of anal cancer compared to the general population of women.

Published

on

Photo by Swaraj Tiwari from Unsplash.com

The prevalence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), which precede anal cancer, is much higher in women living with HIV than previously reported, a multi-site, national study involving hundreds of patients has found.

Conducted by researchers from the AIDS Malignancy Consortium, a National Cancer Institute-supported clinical trials group, the results call for new strategies to be developed for wider screening of women living with HIV, who have disproportionally higher rates of anal cancer compared to the general population of women. The study appears in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

To determine the true prevalence of anal HSIL in women living with HIV in the United States, the researchers, for the first time, conducted a full anal evaluation including a high resolution anoscopy (an examination of the anus under magnification) with directed biopsy on all 256 female study participants, not just on those who had an abnormal screening test or triage. The prevalence of anal HSIL was 27 percent, substantially higher than previous study estimates, which ranged between four to nine percent.

“We believe most prior studies of anal HSIL prevalence in women living with HIV under-represented the true percentage because only individuals with abnormal anal cytology underwent high resolution anoscopy in past studies, compared to all the participants in this new study,” said Dr. Elizabeth Chiao, the co-author and principal investigator of the study. Dr. Chiao is a professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at Baylor College of Medicine and with the Houston VA Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety.

READ:  Should PLHIV come out?

The study was conducted at 12 academic medical centers across the United States, with the participants recruited between 2014 and 2016. The mean age of participants was 49.4 years, 64 percent were non-Hispanic black, and 67 percent were former or current smokers.

“The high prevalence of anal cancer precursors and invasive anal cancer among women living with HIV calls for greater screening in this population,” said lead author Elizabeth Stier, MD, of Boston Medical Center, who is also an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Boston University School of Medicine. “Because optimal screening strategies are still not yet known, prevention of anal cancer among this population should focus on identifying cost-effective strategies for the detection and management of anal cancer precursors.”

Screening women living with HIV for anal cancer has been recommended by national organizations, including the American Cancer Society, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons.

The study was supported by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health.

Continue Reading

POZ

54% of April’s HIV cases from 25-34 age group; and 29% are 15-24 years old at time of testing

Sexual contact remained as the predominant mode of transmission (98%, 819). Among the newly diagnosed, 57% (475) reported transmission through male to male sex, 24% (203) through sex with both males and females, and 17% (141) were through male to female sex.

Published

on

Younger people continue to be the most affected by HIV in the Philippines, with the median age of those newly infected in April 2019 27 years old (age range: 2-73 years old). More than half of the new HIV cases (52%, 434) were 25-34 years old, and 29% (240) were 15-24 years old at the time of testing.

In April, there were 38 newly diagnosed adolescents 10-19 years old at the time of diagnosis. Further, two cases were 17 years old and 36 cases were 18-19 years old. Almost all (95%) were infected through sexual contact (six male-female sex, 19 male-male sex, and 11 had sex with both males and females), one was infected through sharing of needles and one had no data on mode of transmission.

There were three diagnosed cases less than 10 years old and all were infected through vertical transmission (formerly, mother-to-child transmission).

This is according to the latest report from the HIV/AIDS & ART Registry of the Philippines (HARP), which cited that 840 Filipinos were newly infected for the fourth month of the year. Ninety-four percent (789) of the newly diagnosed were male.

Almost a third (32%, 271) were from the National Capital Region (NCR). Region 4A (16%, 137), Region 3 (11%, 92), Region 7 (8%, 65), and Region 6 (7%, 55) comprised the top five regions with the most number of newly diagnosed cases for the month, together accounting for 74% of the total.

READ:  Best practices be damned

Sexual contact remained as the predominant mode of transmission (98%, 819). Among the newly diagnosed, 57% (475) reported transmission through male to male sex, 24% (203) through sex with both males and females, and 17% (141) were through male to female sex.

Still in April 2019, 14% (114) of the newly diagnosed engaged in transactional sex. Ninety-eight percent (112) were male and aged from 17 to 62 years old (median: 28 years). Forty-six percent (52) of the males reported paying for sex only, 38% (42) reported accepting payment for sex only and 16% (18) engaged in both. Also, among the two female cases who engaged in transactional sex, one was reported to have accepted payment for sex and one had engaged in both.

People who engage in transactional sex are those who reported that they either pay for sex, regularly accept payment for sex, or do both. Reporting of transactional sex was included in the HARP starting December 2012.

Other modes of transmission were sharing of infected needles (1%, 5) and vertical transmission, with <1%, 3). There were 13 cases that had no data on mode of transmission.

Among the newly diagnosed females in April, four were pregnant at the time of diagnosis. Two cases were from Region 4A and one case each from Regions 1 & 10.

Reporting of pregnancy status at the time of testing was included in the HARP from the year 2011.

READ:  5 Ways to give to charity when you have no money

In April 2019, there were 752 patients who were initiated on ART. The median CD4 of these patients upon enrollment was 204 cells/mm3. As of end-April 2019, a total of 37,091 PLHIVs were already on ART.

There were 189 reported deaths due to any cause among PLHIVs. Ninety-five percent (179) were males. Thirty-one (16%) cases were 15-24 years old at the time of death, 97 (51%) were 25-34 years old, 52 (28%) were 35-49 years and nine (5%) were 50 years and older. Ninety-five percent of the cases were reported to have acquired the infection through sexual contact: 31 through male-female sex, 92 through male-male sex, and 57 through males who have sex with both males and females. Four (2%) were infected through sharing of needles and one (1%) was through mother-to-child transmission. There were four (2%) reported deaths that had no data on mode of transmission.

Continue Reading

POZ

HMOs ordered to provide medical coverage to people with HIV… with limitations

HMOs are expected to provide coverage to PLHIVs under the following conditions: he/she is undergoing proper medical treatment; he/she has a favorable risk profile; and the results of the medical examinations required by the HMO are within normal limits.

Published

on

Photo by Bill Oxford from Unsplash.com

The Insurance Commission (IC) has ordered health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to provide medical coverage to people living with HIV (PLHIVs), as contained in Circular Letter No. 2019-30, issued by Insurance Commissioner Dennis B. Funa on June 21.

The document is in line with Republic Act (RA) No. 11166, or the Philippine HIV and AIDS Policy Act, signed by President Rodrigo Duterte in December 2018.

Under the circular, the IC will implement and develop policies that will ensure compliance with Section 42 of RA 11166, which states that no person/s living with HIV “shall be denied or deprived of private health insurance under an HMO on the basis of a person’s HIV status.”

Section 49 of the law also prohibits “denial of health services, or being charged with a higher fee, on the basis of actual, perceived or suspected HIV status.”

HMOs are expected to provide coverage to PLHIVs under the following conditions: he/she is undergoing proper medical treatment; he/she has a favorable risk profile; and the results of the medical examinations required by the HMO are within normal limits.

But the IC circular isn’t completely PLHIV-friendly.

Notably, HMO applicants may still be required to undergo HIV testing “based on parameters such as, but not limited to, age, total amount at risk, and occupation/lifestyle; provided that the applicant voluntarily consents to such testing pursuant to Article IV of RA 11166,” the IC said. This “HIV testing shall be performed by health facilities recognized by the Department of Health and have the capacity to provide services on HIV testing and counseling.”

READ:  On using drugs with adverse effects

Also notably, the insurance regulator allows HMOs to temporarily suspend or decline the application of PLHIVs who has other medical conditions or other risk factors which would have also resulted in the suspension or denial of the application even if not HIV positive. These include kidney, liver or cardiovascular diseases, hepatitis B or C, pulmonary tuberculosis, signs of infections brought on by a weakened immune system, smoking, and injection of illegal drugs.

HMOs are also allowed to set limits of acceptance for PLHIVs depending on their age, payment terms or amount of coverage, upon approval of the IC. And – seemingly negating itself – HMOs may not decline an application solely based on the HIV status of the applicant, but they can still choose to deny coverage of PLHIVs.

Continue Reading

POZ

UNAIDS, UNDP call on 48 countries and territories to remove all HIV-related travel restrictions

Out of the 48 countries and territories that maintain restrictions, at least 30 still impose bans on entry or stay and residence based on HIV status and 19 deport non-nationals on the grounds of their HIV status. Other countries and territories may require an HIV test or diagnosis as a requirement for a study, work or entry visa.

Published

on

UNAIDS and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) are urging countries to keep the promises made in the 2016 United Nations Political Declaration on Ending AIDS to remove all forms of HIV-related travel restrictions. Travel restrictions based on real or perceived HIV status are discriminatory, prevent people from accessing HIV services and propagate stigma and discrimination. Since 2015, four countries have taken steps to lift their HIV-related travel restrictions—Belarus, Lithuania, the Republic of Korea and Uzbekistan.

“Travel restrictions on the basis of HIV status violate human rights and are not effective in achieving the public health goal of preventing HIV transmission,” said Gunilla Carlsson, UNAIDS Executive Director, a.i. “UNAIDS calls on all countries that still have HIV-related travel restrictions to remove them.”

“HIV-related travel restrictions fuel exclusion and intolerance by fostering the dangerous and false idea that people on the move spread disease,” said Mandeep Dhaliwal, Director of UNDP’s HIV, Health and Development Group. “The 2018 Supplement of the Global Commission on HIV and the Law was unequivocal in its findings that these policies are counterproductive to effective AIDS responses.”

Out of the 48 countries and territories that maintain restrictions, at least 30 still impose bans on entry or stay and residence based on HIV status and 19 deport non-nationals on the grounds of their HIV status. Other countries and territories may require an HIV test or diagnosis as a requirement for a study, work or entry visa. The majority of countries that retain travel restrictions are in the Middle East and North Africa, but many countries in Asia and the Pacific and eastern Europe and central Asia also impose restrictions.

READ:  Because you come from a position of privilege

“HIV-related travel restrictions violate human rights and stimulate stigma and discrimination. They do not decrease the transmission of HIV and are based on moralistic notions of people living with HIV and key populations. It is truly incomprehensible that HIV-related entry and residency restrictions still exist,” said Rico Gustav, Executive Director of the Global Network of People Living with HIV.

The Human Rights Council, meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, this week for its 41st session, has consistently drawn the attention of the international community to, and raised awareness on, the importance of promoting human rights in the response to HIV, most recently in its 5 July 2018 resolution on human rights in the context of HIV.

“Policies requiring compulsory tests for HIV to impose travel restrictions are not based on scientific evidence, are harmful to the enjoyment of human rights and perpetuate discrimination and stigma,” said Dainius Pūras, Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. “They are a direct barrier to accessing health care and therefore ineffective in terms of public health. I call on states to abolish discriminatory policies that require mandatory testing and impose travel restrictions based on HIV status.”

The new data compiled by UNAIDS include for the first time an analysis of the kinds of travel restrictions imposed by countries and territories and include cases in which people are forced to take a test to renew a residency permit. The data were validated with Member States through their permanent missions to the United Nations.

READ:  Drug reducing risk of sexually acquired HIV infection approved

UNAIDS and UNDP, as the convenor of the Joint Programme’s work on human rights, stigma and discrimination, are continuing to work with partners, governments and civil society organizations to change all laws that restrict travel based on HIV status as part of the Global Partnership for Action to Eliminate all Forms of HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination [hyperlink]. This is a partnership of United Nations Member States, United Nations entities, civil society and the private and academic sectors for catalysing efforts in countries to implement and scale up programmes and improve shared responsibility and accountability for ending HIV-related stigma and discrimination.

The 48 countries and territories that still have some form of HIV related travel restriction are: Angola, Aruba, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Cayman Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, New Zealand, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

Continue Reading

POZ

31% of new HIV cases from 15-24 age bracket; 99% were infected through sex

In March 2019, there were 1,172 newly diagnosed HIV-positive Filipinos; 94% of them male. Sexual contact remained as the predominant mode of transmission (98%).

Published

on

Photo by ian dooley from Unsplash.com

That those getting infected with HIV in the Philippines are getting younger was again emphasized by the HIV/AIDS & ART Registry of the Philippines (HARP) from the Department of Health’s Epidemiology Bureau, which reported that for March 2019, latest data available showed that 31% (359) were from the 15-24 age bracket at the time of testing. In total, there were 1,172 newly confirmed HIV positive individuals in March.

Of the 359 cases, 95% were male. Almost all (99%, 358) were infected through sexual contact (29 male-female sex, 236 male-male sex, 93 sex with both males and females). One (1%) had no data on mode of transmission.

Also for March, there were 49 newly diagnosed adolescents 10-19 years old at the time of diagnosis. Further, 11 cases were 15-17 years old and 38 cases were 18-19 years old. All were similarly infected through sexual contact (5 male-female sex, 37 male-male sex, and 7 had sex with both males and females).

There were four diagnosed cases of less-than-10-years-old and all were infected through vertical (formerly mother-to-child) transmission.

MALE FILIPINOS IN FOCUS

As usual, 94% (1,106) of the 1,172 newly diagnosed were male. The median age was 27 years old (age range: 3-71 years old). Half of the cases (50%, 591) were 25-34 years old.

Almost a third (30%, 348) were from the National Capital Region (NCR). Other regions that registered the most number of new HIV infections were: Region 4A (15%, 171), Region 3 (12%, 140), Region 11 (12%, 140), and Region 6 (7%, 79). These regions account for 76% of the total.

READ:  Should PLHIV come out?

Sexual contact remained as the predominant mode of transmission (98%, 1,148). Among the newly diagnosed, 61% (712) reported transmission through male to male sex, 24% (282) through sex with both males and females, and 13% (154) were through male to female sex. Other modes of transmission were sharing of infected needles (1%, 11) and vertical (nee
mother-to-child) transmission (<1%, 4).

SPECIAL POPULATIONS

Among the newly diagnosed females this month, seven were pregnant at the time of diagnosis. Three cases were from NCR and Region 4A and one case was from Region 6.

Ninety-one Filipinos who worked overseas within the past five years, whether on land or at sea, were diagnosed in March 2019. They comprised 8% of the total newly-diagnosed cases for the month. Among them, 90% (82) were male. All were infected through sexual contact (22 male-female sex, 44 male-male sex, and 25 sex with both males and females). The ages of male OFWs ranged from 19 to 51 years (median: 33 years).

Almost half (49%) of the males belonged to the 25-34 year age group. Among the nine female OFWs diagnosed in March 2019, six cases were from age groups 25-34 years old, one case was 35-49 years old and two cases were older than 50 years. The age range among diagnosed female OFWs were 26 to 52 years (median: 32 years).

Meanwhile, 14% (160) of the newly diagnosed engaged in transactional sex. Ninety-eight percent (156) were male and aged from 17 to 62 years old (median: 30 years). Forty-nine percent (77) of the males reported paying for sex only, 36% (56) reported accepting payment for sex only and 15% (23) engaged in both. Also, among the four female cases who engaged in transactional sex, 75% (3) were reported to have accepted payment for sex and one had engaged in both.

LIVING BEYOND DIAGNOSIS

READ:  Jake: Learning lessons

In March, there were 11 reported deaths due to any cause among people with HIV, and all were males. Five cases (45%) were 25-34 years old at the time of death and six cases (55%) were 35-49 years. Majority of the cases were reported to have acquired the infection through sexual contact.

It is worth stressing that figures on death never show the complete picture because of under-reporting.

But in March, 923 PLHIVs were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The median CD4 of these patients upon enrollment was 175 cells/mm3. A total of 36,320 people living with HIV (PLHIV) were presently on ART as of March. Most of whom were males (97%). The age of reported cases ranged from 10 months to 80 years (median: 31 years old). Ninety-five percent were on first line regimen, 4% were on second line, and 1% were on other line of regimen.

Continue Reading
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement

Facebook

Most Popular