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Prexy vote highlights LGBT community division

Following the much-hyped claim that the LGBT community in the Philippines supports the candidacy of Mar Roxas, numerous LGBT leaders cried foul. As Pastor Kakay Pamaran of the MCCQC said: “First, there is no such thing as a national LGBT organization… (so) if there is no consolidation of a national LGBT organization, an opinion/position/endorsement is not only illogical, it is – as of now – fringe fiction. And (secondly), it is antithetical to the diversity that we profess.”

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ELECTION TIME IS WAR TIME.

Following the much-hyped claim that the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community in the Philippines already expressed its support of Liberal Party (LP) standard bearer Mar Roxas, numerous LGBT leaders cried foul.

A press conference – attended by the likes of Bemz Benedito, Rich Paras, Geraldine Roman and Renee Salud representing the LGBT community – was captured in Twitter posts of a certain Bong Concepcion (@aalconcepcion), where it was claimed that: “LGBT FOR MAR ROXAS We respect ourselves. Mar and Leni respect the LGBTs too.”

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Another post stated: “LGBT FOR MAR ROXAS! Presscon has started. Naninindigan na para sa mas maayos at disenteng bukas!”

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“This claim – particularly the generalization – is contentious if not, quite frankly, insulting,” said Michael David C. Tan, editor of LGBT publication Outrage Magazine. “Bad and even sad as it may sound, there is no unified Filipino LGBT community to speak of, and as such, the members of the Filipino LGBT community do not have a widely accepted LGBT leader who can claim to represent all of them.”

Tan noted that “members of the LGBT community have different preferences (for the coming election), and disregarding this for political expediency is outrageous. This move is actually even more divisive, instead of helping unite the Filipino LGBT community.”

Tan added: “If you represent yourself/your organization, fine. If you claim to represent all of us, naghahanap ka ng gulo (you’re looking for trouble). And those who also report on this should be aware of this.”

For Rev. Fr. Regen R. Luna of the Ekklesia Tou Theou (Church of God), an LGBT-affirming church in Dasmariñas, Cavite: “Hindi po totoo na buong LGBT community sa buong Pilipinas ay sumusuporta kay Mar Roxas. Kami po ay sumusuporta kay Mayor (Rodrigo) Duterte. Ang totoo, wala pong isang national organization para sa LGBT sa buong Pilipinas. Kailanman hindi nirerepresent ni Bemz Benedito o ng Ladlad ang lahat ng LGBT sa buong Pilipinas. Sinuportahan namin si Mayor Duterte dahil siya lang ang may naipasang anti-discrimination ordinance para sa mga LGBT people sa Davao City kung ikukumpara kay Roxas. Ladlad does not represent all of us.”

Luna added: “May iba din pong mga LGBT na sumusuporta sa ibang (There are other LGBT people who support other) candidates and we respect their decisions.”

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From Mindanao, Stephen Christian Quilacio, who helms the Northern Mindanao AIDS Advocates, said that “LGBT people who claim to support Roxas can do so – but only on a personal capacity. To actually claim that you speak for us is plain wrong.” On a personal level, “I don’t support Roxas; he has not done a thing to progress the human rights of LGBT people. But that’s me. Now speak only for yourself, not for all of us.”

Also from Mindanao, Astrid Joy Padillo of the United Lesbians of Davao said: “Really? We support Mar Roxas? He has not even reached out to us. Does he even know we, the United Lesbians of Davao, exist? So tell me, which LGBT community are they referring to? Because we, the ULD, support no one else but Mayor-soon-to-be-president Rodrigo Roa Duterte and his vice president Allan Cayetano. It is time for the Philippines to understand that a few LGBT groups in Luzon do not (compose) the entire LGBT community. Stop speaking on our behalf.”

Kaming mga Bisaya kabalo mo-istorya (We Visayans know how to speak for ourselves). Know that we exist and our voice is a force to be reckoned with,” added Ziekent dela Pena, also of the United Lesbians of Davao.

Members of the United Lesbians of Davao who support the candidacy of Mayor Rodrigo Duterte

Members of the United Lesbians of Davao who support the candidacy of Mayor Rodrigo Duterte

Parañaque City-based long-time LGBT advocate Yffar Aquino said: “The LGBT community doesn’t have a single individual candidate that we are supporting as one. There is no organization or group of individuals yet in the Philippines that can represent the entire rainbow community, thus endorse a particular presidentiable. In the same manner that we are composed of diverse individuals of different sexual orientations and gender identities and expressions, we also have our different opinions and ideologies as to whom our support should be devoted to based on our candidate’s platforms. For this election, the votes within the community are not leaning towards one candidate but clustered. There are different movements from here and there shouting their candidate’s name.”

Aquino added: “We should take note that the pressing matter here is that the (would-be) president we must be voting for should be a leader who will uphold gender equality as a part of his/her agenda and has shown history of support to the LGBT community.”

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In Baguio City, LGBT activist Myke Abaya Sotero said that “the LGBT (community) is a diverse community. While I respect any LGBT to form their own group in support for a certain candidate, no one can lay claim that the LGBT community is united in supporting a candidate, especially one who has done nothing to uplift the rights and welfare of LGBT people in the country. LGBT people look at a person’s track record and his/her stand on LGBT issues. There has been no other candidate who has the welfare of LGBT people in mind other than Mayor Duterte.”

Meanwhile, transwoman community leader Aloha Filipina said that “naku, malaking drama yan; hiwa-hiwalay tayo (oh my, that can cause a lot of dramas; we are segregated). I am and a lot more LGBT people support Miriam Santiago; and others support Duterte.”

Pastor Kakay Pamaran of the Metropolitan Community Church-Quezon City said: “Una (First), there is no such thing as a national LGBT organization because at this point of our chapter in the story of shaping society, our ‘organizing’ has not transcended identity politics as yet. If there is no consolidation of a national LGBT organization, an opinion/position/endorsement is not only illogical, it is – as of now – fringe fiction. And (secondly), it is antithetical to the diversity that we profess.”

Also in Quezon City, trans activist Dindi Tan, former board member of the Quezon City Pride Council, convenor of Ilocos Sur Pride Council, and chair of Pink Warriors QC, said: “We can all agree to disagree that for this election, we have different bets. But let’s not forget how a party that systematically undermined our very own interests by advancing their own and subordinating ours. We are not at all surprised. A good number of members of the LGBT community felt alienated by the recent endorsement of Roxas by a certain group claiming to represent us. Successive losses in an election is a wake-up call to re-asses the failed leadership of some people and how their supposed ascendancy impacts the dynamics in critical elections such as this.”

She added that “the good thing is, more and more LGBT voters are getting to have more informed choices and have since become politically mature enough to decide whats best for them. I would like to believe that the ‘temperature check’ in the community based on our engagements suggest a more favorable clamor for change and not for the ‘status quo’.”

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For Roxanne Omega Doron of Cebu-City-based Bisdak Pride: “I respect diversity of opinions and political stands coming from the members of the LGBT community re endorsing a particular candidate for elections who they think will help advance our socio-political and economic rights. Maybe (it is) because of our diversity that we also have diverse political stands. Whatever the motivation, I think it is inappropriate for a particular LGBT group or individual to speak and announce publicly their favored candidate in behalf of the entire LGBT community. The Philippine elections is a highly divisive and cruel political exercise and it is unfortunate that a claim of a particular group or individual will add burden to the already marginalized and oppressed LGBT community.”

Meanwhile, Krizia Zegers of the Association of Transgender People in the Philippines, said: “I have nothing against Bemz and her group… but I completely disagree with their claim that the LGBT community supports Roxas. Was there a consensus that involved all LGBT organizations or all that represent our community? There’s none that I can think of…”

In a press release received by Outrage Magazine after the aforementioned press conference that was not even attended by Roxas or his running mate Leni Robredo, it was claimed that the presidential candidate “expressed strong support for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community”. The same PR material claimed that Roxas will certify the anti-discrimination bill as an urgent measure to be passed by both Congress and the Senate the moment he sits in office, and that he will push for civil unions (even if Roxas already earlier said that he does not believe in marriage equality).

Transwoman Benedito of the LGBT Party List, who was present at the event, said: “Again, we gathered as LGBT members from different organizations to support our personal choice. We never said even in our statements that we represent the entire LGBT universe or community.”

THIS STORY WAS AMENDED ON APRIL 23 (9:31AM) TO INCLUDE THE STATEMENTS OF: REV. FR. PASTOR MYKE SOTERO, DINDI TAN, KRIZIA ZEGERS AND BEMZ BENEDITO.
THIS IS A DEVELOPING STORY AND THE POSITIONS OF OTHER LGBT COMMUNITY LEADERS WILL BE ADDED AS SOON AS THEY ARE RECEIVED

A registered nurse, John Ryan (or call him "Rye") Mendoza hails from Cagayan de Oro City in Mindanao (where, no, it isn't always as "bloody", as the mainstream media claims it to be, he noted). He first moved to Metro Manila in 2010 (supposedly just to finish a health social science degree), but fell in love not necessarily with the (err, smoggy) place, but it's hustle and bustle. He now divides his time in Mindanao (where he still serves under-represented Indigenous Peoples), and elsewhere (Metro Manila included) to help push for equal rights for LGBT Filipinos. And, yes, he parties, too (see, activists need not be boring! - Ed).

NEWSMAKERS

Many teens are victims of digital dating abuse; boys get the brunt of it

More than one-quarter (28.1 percent) of teens who had been in a romantic relationship at some point in the previous year said they had been the victim of at least one form of digital dating abuse.

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A new research is illuminating how dating violence is manifesting online. “Digital dating abuse” as it has been termed, uses technology to repetitively harass a romantic partner with the intent to control, coerce, intimidate, annoy or threaten them. Given that youth in relationships today are constantly in touch with each other via texting, social media and video chat, more opportunities for digital dating abuse can arise.

A researcher from Florida Atlantic University, in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, conducted a study to clarify the extent to which youth are experiencing digital forms of dating abuse, as well as to identify what factors are linked to those experiences.

Research on this phenomenon is still emerging; indeed, this study is the first to examine these behaviors with a large, nationally representative sample of 2,218 middle and high school students (12 to 17 years old) in the United States who have been in a romantic relationship.

Results of the study, published in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, showed that more than one-quarter (28.1 percent) of teens who had been in a romantic relationship at some point in the previous year said they had been the victim of at least one form of digital dating abuse. These included: whether their significant other looked through the contents of their device without permission; kept them from using their device; threatened them via text; posted something publicly online to make fun of, threaten, or embarrass them; and posted or shared a private picture of them without permission.

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In addition, more than one-third (35.9 percent) had been the victim at least one form of traditional (offline) dating abuse (i.e., they were pushed, grabbed or shoved; hit or threatened to be hit; called names or criticized, or prevented from doing something they wanted to do).

Interestingly, males were significantly more likely to have experienced digital dating abuse (32.3 percent) compared to females (23.6 percent), and more likely to experience all types of digital dating abuse, and were even more likely to experience physical aggression. No other differences emerged with respect to demographic characteristics such as sexual orientation, race and age.

“Specific to heterosexual relationships, girls may use more violence on their boyfriends to try to solve their relational problems, while boys may try to constrain their aggressive impulses when trying to negotiate discord with their girlfriends,” said Sameer Hinduja, Ph.D., lead author and a professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice within FAU’s College for Design and Social Inquiry, and co-director of the Cyberbullying Research Center. “It’s unfortunate to be thinking about dating abuse as we approach one of the most romantic days of the year, Valentine’s Day. However, it is clear that digital dating abuse affects a meaningful proportion of teenagers, and we need to model and educate youth on what constitutes a healthy, stable relationship and what betrays a dysfunctional, problematic one.”

The researchers also found a significant connection between digital and traditional forms of dating abuse: the vast majority of students who had been abused online had also been abused offline. Specifically, 81 percent of the students who had been the target of digital dating abuse had also been the target of traditional dating abuse.

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Students victimized offline were approximately 18 times more likely to have also experienced online abuse compared to those who were not victimized offline. Similarly, most of the students who had been the victim of offline dating violence also had been the victim of online dating violence, though the proportion (63 percent) was lower.

A number of risk factors were significantly associated with digital dating abuse. Students who reported depressive symptoms were about four times as likely to have experienced digital dating abuse. Those who reported that they had sexual intercourse were 2.5 times as likely to have experienced digital dating abuse. Most notably, those students who had sent a “sext” to another person were nearly five times as likely to be the target of digital dating abuse as compared to those who had not sent a sext. Finally, those who had been the target of cyberbullying also were likely to have been the target of digital dating abuse.

Hinduja said: “Gaining a deeper understanding of the emotional and psychological mind-set and the situational circumstances of current-day adolescents may significantly inform the policy and practice we need to develop to address this form and all forms of dating abuse.”

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NEWSMAKERS

City of Manila co-opts LGBTQIA pride; to hold tourism-centric event

In the City of Manila, where there is still no anti-discrimination ordinance (ADO) protecting the human rights of members of the LGBTQIA community, the local government is slated to hold its tourism-centric “Manila Summer Pride” celebration at Burnham Green at the Quirino Grandstand on April 19.

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Screencap from the Facebook page of the Department of Tourism, Culture and Arts of Manila

Tone-deaf event for tourists using the LGBTQIA community as lure?

In the City of Manila, where there is still no anti-discrimination ordinance (ADO) protecting the human rights of members of the LGBTQIA community, the local government (LGU) under the leadership of former actor and product endorser Mayor Isko Moreno is slated to hold its first “Manila Summer Pride” celebration at Burnham Green at the Quirino Grandstand on April 19.

Themed “Awra Na,” the event – done through the city’s Department of Tourism, Culture and Arts of Manila (DTCAM) – is said to “showcase ang diversity sa Lungsod ng Maynila.” DTCAM also stated that the event is the LGU’s way of expressing its support to the LGBTQIA community.

https://www.facebook.com/DTCAM2020/posts/511090726211959

According to DTCAM, “the Manila Summer Pride will be the first pride celebration organized by the City Government of Manila and we are honored to host this historical event.” But earlier, DTCAM stressed that the event is open even to those who are not LGBTQIA to include allies, and that it’s for people who “support love and equality, no matter what gender.”

Since pride celebrations are usually done in June, marking the Stonewall Inn Riots that happened in New York in 1969, largely considered as the impetus of the modern LGBTQIA movement, the LGU’s decision to hold its version of pride in April is because it believes that pride should be celebrated “anywhere and anytime of the year.”

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“Pride… in June are known all across the world and we understand that this also signifies unity among the LGBTQIA community members globally. However, times are changing and even in other countries and places in the Philippines, Pride (events) are now being conducted in different months and we believe that as a movement, it is due to be celebrated anywhere and anytime of the year,” DTCAM stated.

According to Michael David C. Tan, editor of Outrage Magazine and concurrent executive director of Manila City-based Bahaghari Center for SOGIE Research, Education and Advocacy, Inc. (Bahaghari Center), the LGU’s version of pride is problematic on many sides.

“No one will question efforts that eye to give attention to minority sectors – such as the LGBTQIA community – that continue to experience hardships,” Tan said. However, “when an effort that claims to be for a certain sector does not even know what that sector really needs, then there’s an issue.”

Manila’s LGU may be accused of “co-opting” the LGBTQIA struggle, Tan said, by focusing on “just selling it as a for-tourism event, particularly since the city still does not have an ADO.”

For Tan, “partying is cool; but we need rights”. So if Moreno is “really serious about wanting to support the LGBTQIA community, he should focus on passing an ADO, which will longer-lasting, life-changing effects on his LGBTQIA constituents’ lives.”

Tan added that the decision to hold the gathering in April solely because the organizers see pride as a celebration that can be done anytime, anywhere is therefore “tone deaf” because “for as long as LGBTQIA people are treated as less than their heterosexual counterparts, then pride remains a protest, a struggle” and “not mere celebration.”

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PNP should stop all forms of profiling – Sen. Binay

Sen. Nancy Binay urged the Philippine National Police (PNP) to end all kinds of profiling that target specific individuals or groups based on appearance, political beliefs, religion, ethnicity, gender identity or sexual orientation.

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Screencap from the Twitter page of Sen. Nancy Binay

Philippine Sen. Nancy Binay urged the Philippine National Police (PNP) to end all kinds of profiling that target specific individuals or groups based on appearance, political beliefs, religion, ethnicity, gender identity or sexual orientation.

Binay issued the call for a “standing policy banning operations with a gender or political bias” after a transgender woman claimed she was “profiled” by Makati cops under “Oplan X-Men.”

For Binay, police profiling “borders on grave abuse”, particularly since even innocent law-abiding citizens have been wrongly arrested or accused of crimes.

In a statement, Binay said: “Pipilitin kang sumama sa presinto at kukunin ang personal na impormasyon mo na wala namang malinaw o legal na dahilan. Bakit, may kaso ba? May complaint ba? May krimen bang nagawa? Warrantless arrest ba ito? (Cops force you to come to their police station and get your personal information without clear and legal reasons. Why? Do you have a case? Is there a complaint? Did you commit a crime? Is this a warrantless arrest?)”

Binay questioned gender profiling, red- or prostitute-tagging and the propriety of arresting people on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior.

For Binay, “dahil sa mali-maling profiling, people’s rights have been trampled. Sana huwag nang pamarisan pa ang pangyayaring ito ng ibang local police (because of wrong profiling, people’s rights have been trampled. I hope other local police don’t follow suit).”

Binay added that “police should be accountable for abusive practices.”

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The senator is urging to the PNP and other law enforcement agencies to have a “clear and enforceable policy” ending bigotry, particularly institutionalized homophobia and transphobia, in their organizations. She suggested that cops undergo gender awareness and sensitivity training to avoid further malicious and unsubstantiated arrests.

Earlier, Makati City police chief Rogelio Simon said that profiling operations are not wrong per se; but because of the ruckus created by Operation X-Men, the two cops involved in an incident wherein a transgender woman was wrongfully almost forced to be profiled were fired.

As per an Inquirer.net report, too, National Capital Region Police Office (NCRPO) chief Maj. Gen. Debold Sinas said that the agency will continue its profiling operations as this was the directive of the PNP chief.

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LOVE AFFAIRS

Same-sex wedding held in British Embassy Manila

British Ambassador Daniel Pruce officiated a same-sex wedding in the British embassy in Manila, marking not only Valentine’s Day but the 87th same-sex marriage conducted in the premises.

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Screencap from the British Embassy Manila FB page

#LoveWins

British Ambassador Daniel Pruce officiated a same-sex wedding in the British embassy in Manila, marking not only Valentine’s Day but the 87th same-sex marriage conducted in the premises.

In a Facebook post, British Embassy Manila claimed: “Love is in the air! Congratulations to Mark and Richard who were married by Ambassador Daniel Pruce on #ValentinesDay. We wish you a lifetime of love and happiness.”

It is worth noting that while same-sex marriage is not outright banned by the Philippine Constitution, the country’s Family Code limits marriage as a sacrament between one man and one woman.

However, foreign embassies are given extraterritorial privileges under the Geneva Convention. These include immunity from intrusion, damage and disturbance by the host countries.

Same-sex marriage was legalized in Great Britain in 2014; and so the embassy said the UK “continues to champion the rights and equal treatment of all regardless of gender.”

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NEWSMAKERS

Makati City police now – apparently – profiling members of LGBTQIA community

The practice of profiling members of the LGBTQIA community is – apparently – actually already part of the implemented practices of Makati City’s police via its “Operation X-Men.”

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Screencap from Makati City police's SCADS

On February 14, transgender woman Anne Pelos was walking along Makati Ave. in Makati City, when she was stopped by a police officer who wanted her to go with him to the police station. Asked why, Pelos was told Makati police was instructed to to bring in transgender people (in this case in particular, transgender women) “for profiling.”

Though Pelos – who works in the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry – was able to walk away from the traumatizing incident with her friends documenting/recording what transpired, the practice of profiling members of the LGBTQIA community is – apparently – actually already part of the implemented practices of Makati City’s police via its “Operation X-Men.”

In January, in an earlier post in Facebook, Makati police’s Station Community Affairs and Development Section (SCADS) stated that “Oplan X-Men is an intensified operation that aims to rescue ladyboys (sic) from exploitation and human trafficking in ill-repute areas.”

On January 22, at 11:52 PM, for that matter, the city’s police “invited” 67 individuals to the Makati City Police Station, with those invited coming from “illegal settlers inside Manila South Cemetery” and as a result of “Oplan X-Men at Burgos, Poblacion, Makati City.”

As reported, the rounding up of people was “conducted through the combined efforts of Station Operations, Women’s Desk, Station Intelligence and Station and Drug Enforcement Unit.”

According to the Commission on Human Rights (CHR), which has started investigating “Oplan X-Men”, the CHR recognizes incidents in which the police may “invite” individuals to their headquarters. However, “the public should exercise caution, as these may be used to effect warrantless arrests,” CHR spokesperson Jacqueline de Guia was quoted as saying by Inquirer.net.

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De Guia added that “this recent incident further highlights the violence and harassment experienced every day by the LGBTQI community because of their sexual orientation and gender identity (and expression).”

On her Facebook recollection of the incident, Pelos surmised that she was targeted because of what she was wearing (i.e. a white tube dress, which may be stereotypically associated with what sex workers in the area also wear).

But Pelos said that “I have an honest and decent job…” adding that “you should not just judge all trans people and drag them to the police precinct.”

On February 17, following the ruckus caused by the profiling, the two cops (Patrolman Timmy Paez and Police Corporal Juliel Atal) who invited Pelos to their headquarters after accosting her as she was walking home along Makati Avenue were supposedly fired.

Also, surprisingly, even after SCAD’s earlier mention of the same, Makati City police chief Rogelio Simon also told news outlet Rappler that Oplan X-Men was not a part of any police activity in Makati.

This is not the first ill-conceived attempt to profile members of the LGBTQIA community.

In 2017, former Quezon City mayor Herbert Bautista issued a memorandum to task the heads of the local government unit’s various offices to profile “all employees who belong to the (LGBTQIA community)… regardless of the employment agreement.”

Incidentally, Nazi Germany also profiled members of the LGBTQIA community; and under the Third Reich, it is estimated that approximately 100,000 men were arrested for homosexuality, of which around 5,000-15,000 were sent to concentration camps.

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For CHR’s De Guia, the incident stresses “the need to pass the SOGIE Equality Bill to penalize all forms of discrimination.”

The proposed bill that eyes to protect the human rights of members of the LGBTQIA community continues to languish in Congress after two decades.

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NEWSMAKERS

Women in leadership positions face more sexual harassment

Power in the workplace does not stop women’s exposure to sexual harassment. On the contrary, women with supervisory positions are harassed more than women employees.

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Photo by Isabella Mariana from Pexels.com

Power in the workplace does not stop women’s exposure to sexual harassment. On the contrary, women with supervisory positions are harassed more than women employees. These are the results from a new study from the Swedish Institute for Social Research at Stockholm University, which examined the conditions in Sweden, USA and Japan.

Written by Folke, O., Rickne, J., Tanaka, S., & Tateishi, Y., Sexual Harassment of Women Leaders appeared in Daedalus.

By analyzing the responses from three surveys, researchers at the Swedish Institute for Social Research, SOFI, at Stockholm University, together with fellow American and Japanese researchers, have studied the prevalence of sexual harassment across the organizational hierarchy. The study shows that women with supervisory positions experienced between 30 and 100 per cent more sexual harassment than other women employees. This was true across the United States, Japan, and Sweden, three countries with different gender norms and levels of gender equality in the labour market. Comparing levels of leadership, exposure to harassment was greatest at lower levels of leadership, but remained substantial and similar to the level of harassment for the highest positions.

“When we first started to study sexual harassment, we expected a higher exposure for women with less power in the workplace. Instead we found the contrary. When you think about it, there are logical explanations: a supervisor is exposed to new groups of potential perpetrators. She can be harassed both from her subordinates and from higher-level management within the company. More harassment from these two groups is also what we saw when we asked the women who had harassed them,” says Johanna Rickne, Professor of Economics at SOFI.

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In all three countries, women with supervisory positions were subject to more harassment when their subordinates consisted of mostly men.

“Sexual harassment means that women’s career advancement comes at a higher cost than men’s, especially in male-dominated industries and firms. Additional survey data from the United States and Japan showed that harassment of supervisors was not only more common than for employees, but was also followed by more negative professional and social consequences. This included getting a reputation of being a ‘trouble maker’ and missing out on promotions or training,” says Olle Folke, affiliated researcher at SOFI and associate professor at Uppsala University.

The study addressed the risk of measurement error from different awareness of sexual harassment among supervisors and employees. Questions on whether or not particular behaviours should, or should not, be defined as harassment showed similar answers in the two groups. This makes it unlikely that the results derive from different perceptions of work interactions, rather than different treatment in those interactions.

The study used two different measurement tools. The surveys in the United States and Japan included the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire, a survey instrument with a list of behaviours, developed for studies in the US military. All three countries were also surveyed with subjective questions about whether the person had been exposed to sexual harassment. The time span for all questions was the previous 12 months.

The Swedish results come from five waves of the Swedish Work Environment Survey, a nationally representative dataset collected biannually by Statistics Sweden (1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007) and with a total of 23,994 female respondents. In the United States and Japan, the research team collected new survey material during 2019. The US sample included 1,573 employed female citizens, whereof 62 per cent had supervisory positions, while the Japanese sample included 1,573 respondents, of which 17 per cent of the women were in supervisory positions. Apart from questions about sexual harassments, respondents were asked about perpetrators, how they reacted to the harassment, and what social and professional consequences followed the victimization.

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