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Syphilis: The essential guide

Syphilis is an STD that doesn’t quite get as much publicity as it once did. As other STDs have become more common and better known, syphilis has rather fallen by the wayside— or it has, at least, in popular discussion.

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Syphilis is an STD that doesn’t quite get as much publicity as it once did. As other STDs have become more common and better known, syphilis has rather fallen by the wayside— or it has, at least, in popular discussion.

The sad reality is that syphilis is still a serious problem and is, in fact, becoming more prevalent even as discussion of the disease is reducing. Figures released last year showed that syphilis is has risen massively over recent years, leading to the need for a fresh focus on what syphilis is and the potential issues it can cause.

What is syphilis?

The syphilis bacteria.
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Syphilis is a bacterial disease, which is classified as a sexually transmitted disease.

What are the symptoms of syphilis?

There are four stages of syphilis, and specific symptoms are associated with each stage:

 

  • Primary: small, painless sores in the genital region.
  • Secondary: swollen glands, fever, weight loss, fatigue, and skin rashes.

     

  • Latent: the third stage is a stage of dormancy, and you are unlikely to experience symptoms during this stage. However, the bacteria is still present in your system, and is likely progressing to…

     

  • Tertiary: the most serious stage, which can have potentially disastrous consequences for health. Neurological issues, dementia, vision problems, and numbness in the extremities are common by the time the disease has progressed to the tertiary stage.

How serious is syphilis?

Very. Syphilis can also severely inhibit your ability to live your life normally. If the infection is allowed to progress, then you may develop neurosyphilis, which can lead to the development of issues such as dementia. While neurosyphilis can be managed should you choose to tour Parc Provence and obtain specialist assistance, it’s fair to say that most of us would prefer never to reach this point to begin with.

As well as impacting your experience of life, syphilis also has the potential to be fatal. As a result, it’s vital to take the threat of syphilis very seriously.

When is syphilis contagious?

Syphilis is contagious during the first two stages, and sometimes even during the early months of the third stage. By the time the disease has progressed to the tertiary stage, it is no longer infectious.

How is syphilis prevented?

All the usual wears; dental dams, condoms, and safe sex practices in general.

What should I do if I suspect I have syphilis?

Talk to a doctor as soon as possible.
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If you find a painless sore in the genital or rectal regions, then speak to your doctor immediately. Syphilis is actually very easy to treat when detected in the early stages of infection; you will likely be prescribed a course of penicillin and life will return to normal. Syphilis only becomes a severe threat to life enjoyment and health if it is allowed to progress to the tertiary stage; if you can deal with the problem prior to this point, then your health will be unaffected by the infection going forward.

In conclusion

Knowledge of syphilis is an essential component of good sexual health maintenance; we hope you found the facts above beneficial in this respect.

Health & Wellness

Study finds more mental heath visits decreases risk of suicide among youths

Youths with psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use should be routinely assessed for suicide risk and receive high-intensity, evidence-based treatments for suicidality, such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

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A multistate study of Medicaid enrollees led by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center found that suicide risk was highest among youth with epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, substance use and bipolar disorder. In addition, the odds of suicide decreased among those who had more mental health visits within the 30 days before the date of suicide.

Researchers compared the clinical profiles and mental health service patterns of children and adolescents who had died by suicide to see how they differed from the general population. The findings published today in JAMA Pediatrics.

“To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the clinical profiles and health and mental health service utilization patterns prior to suicide for children and adolescents within the Medicaid population,” said lead researcher Cynthia Fontanella, an associate professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral health at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. “Understanding how health care utilization patterns of suicidal decedents differ from the general population is critical to target suicide prevention efforts.”

This population-based case-control study merged mortality data with US Medicaid data from 16 states spanning all regions of the country and accounting for 65% of the total child Medicaid population.

The study looked at 910 youth aged 10-18 years who died by suicide between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 compared to a control group of 6,346 youth that was matched based on gender, race, ethnicity, Medicaid eligibility category, state and age.

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For both groups, researchers examined health and behavioral health visits in the six-month period prior to date of suicide. Associations between visits, clinical characteristics and suicide were examined.

Clinical characteristics included psychiatric diagnoses (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorders, depression, bipolar disorder and other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia/psychosis, substance use and other mental health disorders) and chronic medical conditions (diabetes, seizure disorders, cerebral palsy, asthma or cancer.)

“Our study found that 41% of youth who died by suicide had at least one mental health diagnosis in the six months prior to death, a finding similar to those of previous studies on adults,” Fontanella said. “Our findings suggest that youths with psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use should be routinely assessed for suicide risk and receive high-intensity, evidence-based treatments for suicidality, such as cognitive behavioral therapy.”

In the US, the suicide rate among people aged 10-24 years has increased by 50% since 1999. Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in this age group, accounting for nearly 6,800 deaths in 2017.

“Suicide among young people is a major public health problem. Based on our findings, we believe that implementing suicide screening protocols for youth enrolled in Medicaid – targeted on the basis of frequency of visits and psychiatric diagnoses – has the potential to decrease suicide rates,” Fontanella said.

Members of the LGBTQIA community encounter more issues related to mental health.

In November 2019, for instance, a study noted that sexual minorities were around five times more likely to experience high depressive symptoms (54% vs 15%) and self-harm (54% vs 14%). They also had lower life satisfaction (34% vs 10%), lower self-esteem and were more likely to experience all forms of bullying (i.e. peer bullying 27% vs 10%) and victimization (i.e. sexual assault/harassment 11% vs 3%) .

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In September 2017, another study suggested that experiencing anti-bisexual prejudice, internalized heterosexism, and identity concealment appears to be related to feelings of loneliness and ultimately psychological distress and suicidality among bi individuals.

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Health & Wellness

COVID-19 linked to cardiac injury, worse outcomes for patients with heart conditions

COVID-19 can have fatal consequences for people with underlying cardiovascular disease and cause cardiac injury even in patients without underlying heart conditions.

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COVID-19 can have fatal consequences for people with underlying cardiovascular disease and cause cardiac injury even in patients without underlying heart conditions, according to a review published today in JAMA Cardiology by experts at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Experts have known that viral illnesses such as COVID-19 can cause respiratory infections that may lead to lung damage and even death in severe cases. Less is known about the effects on the cardiovascular system.

“It is likely that even in the absence of previous heart disease, the heart muscle can be affected by coronavirus disease,” said Mohammad Madjid, MD, MS, the study’s lead author and an assistant professor of cardiology at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth. “Overall, injury to heart muscle can happen in any patient with or without heart disease, but the risk is higher in those who already have heart disease.”

The study authors explained that research from previous coronavirus and influenza epidemics suggest that viral infections can cause acute coronary syndromes, arrhythmias, and the development of, or exacerbation of, heart failure.

In a clinical bulletin issued by the American College of Cardiology, it was revealed that the case fatality rate of COVID-19 for patients with cardiovascular disease was 10.5%. Data also points to a greater likelihood that individuals over the age of 65 with coronary heart disease or hypertension can contract the illness, as well experience more severe symptoms that will require critical care.

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According to the study authors, critical cases are those that reported respiratory failure, septic shock, and/or multiple organ dysfunction or failure that resulted in death. “It is reasonable to expect that significant cardiovascular complications linked to COVID-19 will occur in severe symptomatic patients because of the high inflammatory response associated with this illness,” said Madjid, who also sees patients at the UT Physicians Multispecialty – Bayshore clinic.

The novel virus that causes COVID-19 was first identified in January 2020. This novel virus originated in Wuhan, China, and by March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization had declared it a global pandemic. The three most common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other less common symptoms are muscle pain, sore throat, nasal congestion, and headache. Symptoms can appear as soon as two days after exposure to the virus to up to14 days after. There is a high viral load in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, meaning asymptomatic spread between person to person is likely.

Previously identified coronaviruses known to cause severe illness in humans include Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). SARS-CoV was first identified in southern China in 2002, and by 2003 it had killed over 8,000 individuals in 29 countries. Data suggests that SARS-CoV may have resulted in cardiovascular complications, such as acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. MERS-CoV was first discovered in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. As of 2019, 2,494 cases have been confirmed along with 858 deaths in 26 countries.

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Current COVID-19 treatment options are being researched, and there is a large effort to develop vaccines for prevention and to test antivirals for the treatment of the disease. In the meantime, the study authors encourage all individuals to consult with their health care providers about being vaccinated against influenza and that at-risk patients seek advice on receiving a pneumonia vaccine from their primary care physician. While these vaccines will not provide specific protection against COVID-19, they can help prevent superimposed infections alongside COVID-19.

Study co-authors include Payam Safavi-Naeini, MD, of the Texas Heart Institute; Scott Solomon, MD, of Harvard Medical School; and Orly Vardeny, PharmD, of the University of Minnesota.

It is worth noting that cardiovascular issues greatly affect members of the LGBTQIA community.

A 2018 study in the US, for instance, noted that lesbian, gay and bisexual adults have a “disproportionately high risk” of heart disease and other cardiac problems when compared to heterosexuals.

Another 2018 study noted that trauma, including abuse and neglect, is associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk for lesbian and bi women.


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Health & Wellness

To stay positive, live in the moment – but plan ahead

Mindfulness is when people are centered and living in the moment, rather than dwelling in the past or worrying about the future. Proactive coping is when people engage in planning to reduce the likelihood of future stress.

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A recent study from North Carolina State University finds that people who manage to balance living in the moment with planning for the future are best able to weather daily stress without succumbing to negative moods.

“It’s well established that daily stressors can make us more likely to have negative affect, or bad moods,” says Shevaun Neupert, a professor of psychology at NC State and corresponding author of a paper on the recent work. “Our work here sheds additional light on which variables influence how we respond to daily stress.”

Specifically, the researchers looked at two factors that are thought to influence how we handle stress: mindfulness and proactive coping.

Mindfulness is when people are centered and living in the moment, rather than dwelling in the past or worrying about the future. Proactive coping is when people engage in planning to reduce the likelihood of future stress.

To see how these factors influence responses to stress, the researchers looked at data from 223 study participants. The study included 116 people between the ages of 60 and 90, and 107 people between the ages of 18 and 36. All of the study participants were in the United States.

All of the study participants were asked to complete an initial survey in order to establish their tendency to engage in proactive coping. Participants were then asked to complete questionnaires for eight consecutive days that explored fluctuations in mindfulness. On those eight days, participants were also asked to report daily stressors and the extent to which they experienced negative mood.

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The researchers found that engaging in proactive coping was beneficial at limiting the effect of daily stressors, but that this advantage essentially disappeared on days when a participant reported low mindfulness.

“Our results show that a combination of proactive coping and high mindfulness result in study participants of all ages being more resilient against daily stressors,” Neupert says. “Basically, we found that proactive planning and mindfulness account for about a quarter of the variance in how stressors influenced negative affect.

“Interventions targeting daily fluctuations in mindfulness may be especially helpful for those who are high in proactive coping and may be more inclined to think ahead to the future at the expense of remaining in the present.”

The paper, “Thinking Ahead and Staying in the Present: Implications for Reactivity to Daily Stressors,” is published in the journal Personality and Individual Differences. First author of the paper is Melody Polk, an undergraduate at NC State. The paper was co-authored by Emily Smith and Ling-Rui Zhang, graduate students at NC State. The work was done with support from NC State’s College of Humanities and Social Sciences.

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Health & Wellness

DOH’s Duque says don’t wait for test if you have COVID-19 symptoms; manage it

DOH’s interim guidelines on the management of persons under monitoring (PUMs) suspected with COVID-19 for home quarantine.

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Department of Health (DOH) Secretary Francisco Duque III advised people who have symptoms of COVID-19 to manage their condition as if they really have the disease caused by the new coronavirus instead of waiting to get tested.

As quoted by Inquirer.net from a television interview, Duque said that “if you already know the symptoms, manage it as if it’s COVID-19. If all indications suggest that it’s probably COVID-19, why wait for a test? Manage it as COVID-19 right away. You assume. That’s the way to do it.”

Among the symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, cold, shortness of breath, and diarrhea.

Duque, however, did NOT provide the “how to” on managing COVID-19, particularly for those who are not going to get tested, or access medical facilities.

But on February 17, DOH issued Memorandum No. 2020-0090, which contained the interim guidelines on the management of persons under monitoring (PUMs) suspected with COVID-19 for home quarantine.

The guidelines enumerate people who should be home quarantined:

  1. Any person who does not exhibit any sign/symptom, has history of travel to other areas of China and/or history of exposure to a confirmed case of COVID-19 within the past 14 days.
  2. Any person who exhibits fever or any symptom of lower respiratory illness, and has a history of travel to other countries with a confirmed case of COVID-19 but without any history of exposure.
  3. Those undergoing home quarantine shall be prohibited to leave their rooms/hotels where they are quarantined until they have been certified by the local health official to have finished the 14-day requirement for quarantine procedures.

Now how to implement home quarantine?

PUMs should be isolated.

  1. Place the PUM alone in a well-ventilated room, preferably with toilet and bathroom. If this is not possible, maintain a distance of at least one meter from the PUM (for example, sleep in a separate bed).
  2. Assign one person who is of good health as caretaker of the PUM.
  3. Do not allow visitors, family members and even caregivers in the room of the PUM.
  4. Limit the activities of the PUM in his/her room only. If this is not possible, ensure that shared spaces are well-ventilated.
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PUM should use surgical mask.

  1. The PUM should wear a surgical mask fitted tightly to the nose, mouth and chin when in the same room with another household member or when talking to others.
  2. If alone, the PUM is not required to wear mask.
  3. Do not touch mask during use. If the mask gets wet or dirty with secretions (e.g. saliva), change immediately and dispose properly.
  4. After eight hours, throw used mask. Do not reuse or wash masks.
  5. After removal of mask, wash hands with water and soap, or rub hands with 70% alcohol.
The PUM should wear a surgical mask fitted tightly to the nose, mouth and chin when in the same room with another household member or when talking to others.
Photo by @anshu18 from Unsplash.com

Hand hygiene practice for all.

  1. Everyone should perform hand hygiene following contact with PUM, or if in contact with immediate environment.
  2. Perform hand hygiene by washing hands with water and soap. If hands are not visibly dirty, use 70% alcohol.
  3. When using soap and water, dry hands using disposable paper towels. If not available, use dedicated cloth towels and replace when wet.
  4. Hand hygiene should be performed before and after preparing food, before eating, after using toilet, and when hand is dirty.

Respiratory hygiene and precaution for all.

  1. Cover mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing by using surgical mask, tissues, flexed elbows, sleeves of clothes or inside the neckline of shirts. Follow this up with hand hygiene.
  2. Avoid direct contact with body fluids, particularly oral and respiratory secretions, and feces.
  3. Avoid sharing toothbrushes, cigarettes, towels, bed linen, etc.
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Food handling for PUM under home quarantine.

  1. The assigned caretaker should serve the plates/tray only up to the room door (where the PUM is staying).
  2. After eating, pick plates/tray using gloves. Perform hand hygiene afterwards.
  3. Utensils should be cleaned thoroughly with water and soap. Reused as needed.
  4. Do not share utensils with PUMs.
Gloves, tissues and masks used by PUM should be placed in separate container before disposing with other household waste.
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Disposal of used gloves, tissue papers and masks.

  1. Immediately throw materials used to cover mouth or nose.
  2. If reusable items are used (e.g. handkerchief), immediately wash after use with water and detergent soap.
  3. Gloves, tissues and masks used by PUM should be placed in separate container before disposing with other household waste.

Cleaning and disinfection of quarantine venues.

  1. Frequently clean/disinfect frequently touched surfaces (e.g. bedside tables, door knobs, bed frames, etc). Use household disinfectant; or diluted bleach solution (i.e. 1 part bleach and 99 parts water).
  2. Clean/disinfect bathroom/toilet at least once a day.
  3. Regularly clean clothes, bed linens, towels, etc. of PUMs.

Now, this is important.

PUMs who develop symptoms should be immediately transported to the nearest health facility. In the same way, all household members of PUMs should seek immediate medical care when signs/symptoms develop.

Frequently clean/disinfect frequently touched surfaces.
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Because the DOH is not at all considering mass testing (yet) in the Philippines, these tips may offer temporary comfort as the country continues to come to grips with COVID-19 with the country’s health department’s weaknesses in offering quality healthcare for all now highlighted.

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Health & Wellness

WHO releases guidance for mental health in the age of coronavirus

To start, the UN body stated that people should “be empathetic to all those who are affected, in and from any country” as it warned “against stigmatizing anyone who has or had the virus.”

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As WHO and health authorities all over the world act to contain the Covid-19 outbreak, advice on safeguarding mental health was developed by the UN health agency’s Department of Mental Health and Substance Use.

WHO’s guidance targets the general population; healthcare workers; health facility managers; childcare providers; older adults, care providers and people with underlying health conditions; and those who are living in isolation to try and contain the spread of the pandemic.

To start, the UN body stated that people should “be empathetic to all those who are affected, in and from any country” as it warned “against stigmatizing anyone who has or had the virus.” 

It also recommended that people seek information updates only from trusted sources. “The sudden and near-constant stream of news reports about an outbreak can cause anyone to feel worried”, said WHO. “Get the facts; not the rumors and misinformation”. 

It recommended that people seek information updates only from trusted sources.
Photo by @victorhwn725 from Unsplash.com

The UN health agency also pointed out the benefits of helping others, including phoning neighbors or community members who may need some extra assistance. This is because “working together as one community can help to create solidarity in addressing COVID-19”.

Others tips were segregated to target specific populations.

Those who help others

  1. People should honor caretakers and healthcare workers… for the role they play to save lives and keep loved ones safe, WHO stated.
  2. The feeling of being “under pressure” by healthworkers is normal while emphasizing that stress is “by no means a reflection that you cannot do your job or that you are weak”. 
  3. Healthworkers should rest sufficiently, eat healthy foods, get physical activity and stay in contact with family and friends.
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“This is a unique and unprecedented scenario for many workers, particularly if they have not been involved in similar responses,” said WHO, with the reminder that “this is not a sprint, it’s a marathon”. 

Those in charge

  1. Protect staff from chronic stress and poor mental health to provide them with the capacities they need to perform their duties. 
  2. Focus on the longer term rather than short-term crisis responses.
  3. Team leaders or health facility managers are encouraged to deliver quality communication and accurate information updates to all staff. 
  4. Consider the benefits of rotating workers from higher- to lower-stress functions, and in partnering inexperienced workers with those who are more experienced, to provide reassurance.
  5. Maintain the buddy system to “provide support, monitor stress and reinforce safety procedures,” WHO stated, advocating for outreach personnel to work in pairs and to “initiate, encourage and monitor work breaks”.

Those with children

  1. Help children find positive ways to express feelings, such as fear and sadness. “Children feel relieved if they can express and communicate their feelings in a safe and supportive environment,” the UN health agency maintained, encouraging that if safe, they be kept close to their parents and family. 
  2. Regular contact with parents should be maintained, such as twice-daily scheduled phone or video calls.

Caring for the vulnerable

  1. Relay clear instructions in a concise, respectful and patient way (pictures may be utilized) when dealing with older adults and people with underlying health conditions who are vulnerable, as they may become more anxious, agitated and withdrawn during the outbreak.
  2. Engage their family and other support networks to provide information and help them practice prevention measures, including handwashing.
  3. When in isolation, stay connected and maintain daily routines, as much as possible. 
  4. Keep things in perspective starting with avoid listening to or following rumors.
“This is a unique and unprecedented scenario for many workers, particularly if they have not been involved in similar responses.”
Photo by @geraltyichen from Unsplash.com

Pregnant, breastfeeding women 

  1. Additionally, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) recommended that breastfeeding women who become ill should not be separated from their newborns.
  2. While there is no evidence that the illness can be transmitted through breastmilk, UNFPA urged mothers who are infected to wear a mask when near their baby, wash their hands before and after feeding, and disinfect contaminated surfaces.
  3. If a mother is too ill to breastfeed, she should be encouraged to express milk for the baby, while taking all necessary precautions.
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In the end, “mental health and psychosocial support should be made available to affected individuals and their families”.

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Anxious about COVID-19? Stress can have lasting impacts on sperm and future offspring

Prolonged fear and anxiety brought on by major stressors, like the coronavirus pandemic, can not only take a toll on a person’s mental health, but may also have a lasting impact on a man’s sperm composition that could affect his future offspring.

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Prolonged fear and anxiety brought on by major stressors, like the coronavirus pandemic, can not only take a toll on a person’s mental health, but may also have a lasting impact on a man’s sperm composition that could affect his future offspring. That is the finding of study published in the journal Nature Communications by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

The research outlines a biological mechanism for how a father’s experience with stress can influence fetal brain development in the womb. The effects of paternal stress can be transferred to offspring through changes in the extracellular vesicles that then interact with maturing sperm. Extracellular vesicles are small membrane-bound particles that transport proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells. They are produced in large amounts in the reproductive tract and play an integral role in sperm maturation.

“There are so many reasons that reducing stress is beneficial especially now when our stress levels are chronically elevated and will remain so for the next few months,” said study corresponding author Tracy Bale, PhD, Professor of Pharmacology and Director of the Center for Epigenetic Research in Child Health & Brain Development at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. “Properly managing stress can not only improve mental health and other stress-related ailments, but it can also help reduce the potential lasting impact on the reproductive system that could impact future generations.”

She and her colleagues did not specifically study those who were under stress due to the coronavirus pandemic.

To examine a novel biological role for extracellular vesicles in transferring dad’s stress to sperm, the researchers examined extracellular vesicles from mice following treatment with the stress hormone corticosterone. After treatment, the extracellular vesicles showed dramatic changes in their overall size as well as their protein and small RNA content.

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When sperm were incubated with these previously “stressed” extracellular vesicles prior to fertilizing an egg, the resulting mouse pups showed significant changes in patterns of early brain development, and as adults these mice were also significantly different than controls for how they responded to stress themselves.

To see if similar differences occurred in human sperm, the researchers recruited students from the University of Pennsylvania to donate sperm each month for six months, and complete questionnaires about their perceived stress state in the preceding month. They found that students who had experienced elevated stress in months prior showed significant changes in the small RNA content of their sperm, while those who had no change in stress levels experienced little or no change. These data confirm a very similar pattern found in the mouse study.

“Our study shows that the baby’s brain develops differently if the father experienced a chronic period of stress before conception, but we still do not know the implications of these differences,” said Dr. Bale. “Could this prolonged higher level of stress raise the risk for mental health issues in future offspring, or could experiencing stress and managing it well help to promote stress resilience? We don’t really know at this point, but our data highlight why further studies are necessary.”

The research team did find that stress-induced changes in the male reproductive system take place at least a month after the stress is attenuated and life has resumed its normal patterns. “It appears the body’s adaptation to stress is to return to a new baseline,” Dr. Bale said, “a post-stress physiological state – termed allostasis.”

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This research was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and included co-authors from the Institute for Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and the Department of Pharmaceutical Science at the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, as well as the University of Pennsylvania.

“This research represents a critical step in understanding important mechanisms that underlie the field of intergenerational epigenetics,” said UMSOM Dean E. Albert Reece, MD, PhD, MBA, who is also the Executive Vice President for Medical Affairs, University of Maryland, and the John Z. and Akiko K. Bowers Distinguished Professor. “Such knowledge is crucial to identify early interventions to improve reproduction and early childhood development down the road.”

While the study did not test stress management interventions to determine what effects they might have on attenuating the changes in sperm composition, Dr. Bale, who goes for regular runs to reduce the stress of the current COVID-19 pandemic, contends that any lifestyle habits that are good for the brain are likely good for the reproductive system.

“It is important to realize that social distancing does not have to mean social isolation, especially with modern technologies available to many of us,” said Joshua Gordon, Director of the National Institute of Mental Health in his web message about coping with coronavirus. “Connecting with our friends and loved ones, whether by high tech means or through simple phone calls, can help us maintain ties during stressful days ahead and will give us strength to weather this difficult passage.”

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It is worth noting that stress adversely affects more LGBTQIA people. In February 2019, for instance, a study found that increased exposure to negative messages about same-sex marriage was associated with greater psychological distress for lesbian, gay and bisexual people.

The bad effects of stress among members of the LGBTQIA community was also already noted by earlier studies. In 2018, a study involving 94,250 women across the US found that lesbian and bi women were more likely than heterosexual women to develop type 2 diabetes during the course of the 24-year study follow up.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has tips on “stress and coping” page on their COVID-19 site that recommends the following to “support yourself”:

  • Take breaks from watching, reading, or listening to news stories, including social media. Hearing about the pandemic repeatedly can be upsetting.
  • Take care of your body. Take deep breaths, stretch, or meditate. Try to eat healthy, well-balanced meals, exercise regularly, get plenty of sleep, and avoid alcohol and drugs.
  • Make time to unwind. Try to do some other activities you enjoy.
  • Connect with others. Talk with people you trust about your concerns and how you are feeling.

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