Being pro-LGBT is good for business.
This, at least, can be surmised from an Ogilvy survey involving over 1,000 Americans, including over 400 LGBT allies, and which revealed that nearly two-thirds of the respondents (65%) believe that LGBT-inclusive brands/businesses are good for the economy and an almost similar number (64%) believe that these initiatives reflect diversity.
However – and perhaps worth stressing – majority (68%) report that in order to be an LGBT ally, brands/businesses need to “walk the talk” by following through on promises and plans.
“Our survey demonstrates that creating LGBT inclusive advertising should be more than just a diversity initiative. When it’s done right, it can be a way to drive value at a higher level for an entire business,” said Bill Berman, Ogilvy account director and co-chair of Ogilvy Pride.
The survey also found that LGBT-inclusive advertising can be a key business driver among consumers as 64% of LGBT allies and 46% of all those surveyed say that seeing a brands’ LGBT-inclusive advertising would make them more likely to consider purchasing its products/services.
Opposing inclusion can also impact purchasing decisions with 63% of LGBT allies and 48% of respondents reporting that they try to avoid buying products/services from a brand/business they know discriminates against the LGBT community.
Additional key findings:
- Over seven in ten (72%) believe that a brand/business that is LGBT-inclusive is an ally of the LGBT community.
- Over one-third (35%) report having LGBT-inclusive advertising is an indicator that a brand/business is LGBT-inclusive.
- One in four (25%) report social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.) as a source that has provided them information about whether a brand/business is LGBT-inclusive.
- Nearly three in four (73%) report it is important for brands/businesses to employ a diverse team of people to best serve customers.
- Nearly six in 10 (57%) believe brands/businesses should hire diverse advertising professionals to create LGBT-inclusive advertisements.
Ogilvy fielded a seven-question survey of among 1,087 Americans (aged 18+), of whom 436 were considered LGBT Allies, to understand their perspectives about the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community as it relates to the brands (e.g., Walmart, Ford, Apple, Bank of America, etc.) and businesses (e.g., local coffee shops, restaurants, etc.) they interact with day-to-day. The online survey was fielded by YouGov from May 18-19, 2017, and figures have been weighted and are representative of all US adults. The Ogilvy Pride internal organization created this survey.
LGBT allies were defined as Americans who do not identify as LGBT, but have beliefs or have taken some action in support of the LGBT community (stopped purchasing from a non-supportive brand, donated to LGBT-related charities, have LGBT friends, etc.).
#Buffalo may (just) be a sleepy city in Upstate #NewYork in the US. But it does have surprises – e.g. The Freedom Wall, which celebrates the nation’s historic and ongoing struggles for political and social equality.
Chicken lovers may know the story – i.e. that the Buffalo wing was allegedly invented by Teressa Bellissimo in 1964 at Anchor Bar in the sleepy city of Buffalo in the state of New York.
The thing though, is, sans the spiced fried chicken, Buffalo has other surprises – e.g. The Freedom Wall.
Located at the corner of Michigan Avenue and East Ferry Street, The Freedom Wall was built in 2017 by John Baker, Julia Bottoms, Chuck Tingley and Edreys Wajed.
It was commissioned by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery Public Art Initiative, in partnership with the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA).
It was developed in collaboration with the Michigan Street African-American Heritage Corridor and neighborhood stakeholders.
From the get-go, the intention was always clear: The Freedom Wall eyes to celebrate the nation’s historic and ongoing struggles for political and social equality.
The large concrete wall surrounding NFTA’s Cold Spring Bus Maintenance Depot now has portraits of 28 civil rights leaders.
Some of the subjects depicted include:
Mama Charlene Caver Miller
William Wells Brown
W. E. B. Du Bois
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Mary B. Talbert
Now, The Freedom Wall continues to encourage conversations about the scope of the long journey toward equality and freedom.
And that a lot of effort still needs to be done to bring about a just and equitable world.
Best LGBT nightspots in Vegas
If you’ve been to Vegas before, don’t be fooled into thinking you know all the best places. Bars, hotels and clubs are opening, closing and changing their names all the time.
Las Vegas – it’s America’s biggest playground and it’s a place where everyone is welcome. Age, sex, ethnicity, sexual orientation, nationality, wealth, social background – none of them matter in Sin City. Vegas has a large and vibrant gay scene, and one that extends far beyond what is affectionately know as the fruit loop around East Naples Drive, near the University of Nevada.
If you’ve been to Vegas before, don’t be fooled into thinking you know all the best places. Bars, hotels and clubs are opening, closing and changing their names all the time. If you leave it for more than a couple of years between visits, it can feel like you’re entering a completely different city and you have to learn it all again from scratch.
Five years ago, for example, the Blue Moon resort was the first place on everyone’s list. But Vegas’s first and only specifically gay hotel and resort suddenly closed its doors in October 2014. There have been rumors of it reopening, but none of these have come to fruition as yet.
Here, we’ve taken a look not just around the fruit loop area but also up and down the strip to find some of the top LGBT nightspots in Glitter Gulch.
The exception that proves the rule in the constant swirl of Vegas change, the Piranha nightclub is one constant that has been around for years. The two-floor nightclub is chic, sophisticated and high-energy. The dance floor is always packed, but if you want something a little calmer, it is well worth splashing out on a VIP package.
That provides an opportunity to rub shoulders with the rich and famous, as the VIP area and skyboxes are a popular celebrity haunt. As well as offering an amazing view of the dance floor, you can enjoy a luxury patio, accessed through a walk-through aquarium full of – you guessed it – piranhas. Check out the weekend party package for four, which includes two bottles of New Amsterdam along with mixers in the $350 price.
Piranha is on Paradise Road just to the north of Tropicana Avenue and close to the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino.
Sahara Hotel and Casino
Let’s face it, there’s never been a particularly strong correlation between casino gambling and gay culture. As a result you’re not going to find a “gay casino” as such in Las Vegas, but whether you go to Paris, Wynns or the MGM Grand, you’re guaranteed a warm welcome and a great night’s entertainment.
Having said that, no city on earth has as much choice as Vegas when it comes to gambling halls, so you can afford to be fussy. The Sahara on Las Vegas Boulevard gets singled out here for a couple of reasons. First, it’s a place with its own unique style. Across the board, casino fashion is changing from the archetypal formal wear of Monte Carlo, but the vibe at Sahara is one that really encourages you to express yourself, so make an effort and get dressed up for the night.
Secondly, though, once you’ve had enough of the blackjack, roulette and slots, there are few places better to catch a show. The Sahara has hosted some of the absolutely classic gay icons across the years. These include Liberace, Marlene Dietrich, Judy Garland, Liza Minelli, Barbara Streisand and Kenny Kerr.
Fancy something a little more casual? Quadz could be just the thing, with its retro, dive bar feel. The drinks are cheap, the chatter is friendly and it is one of those places that is as popular with locals as it is with visitors. In Vegas, that’s one of the highest accolades, so definitely pay the place a visit.
The focus here is on traditional bar games like pool, darts and good old fashioned arcade games. There’s a juke box with an eclectic mix so that you can choose your own soundtrack for the night. Quadz also has regular game nights, including Cowboy Bingo once a month and poker every Thursday evening.
Quadz is on Paradise Road, right opposite Piranha Nightclub, and is open 24/7.
The Luxor (Temptation Sunday)
If you’re visiting Las Vegas in the height of summer, a pool party makes all sorts of sense. The Luxor Hotel and Casino on The Strip hosts regular gay pool parties of a Sunday. The Luxor pyramid serves as the perfect backdrop for sun-kissed fun around the pool, and the party vibe is enhanced by Go-Go boys and the cheesiest of party music.
Temptation Sunday also hosts a range of top-notch DJs, so if you are in Vegas for a while, it is worth checking who is on when and planning your visit to The Luxor accordingly. If you want to really make it a party to remember, you could consider renting out a cabana for the occasion. These come equipped for four, and comfy chairs, soft drinks, towels and even a flat screen TV with sports package are all provided for you and your party.
The Temptation Sundays Seasons runs throughout the summer months from about May to September.
Situated on West Sahara Avenue, a short drive to the north west of The Strip, The Phoenix is a friendly cocktail bar that offers cheap drinks, good conversation and a great variety of special event nights.
On a run of the mill evening, there will be no-nonsense bar food, dancing and a choice of video games and traditional bar games to keep you amused. Time your visit right, though, and you could join the fun for an underwear party. Dare to bare and it’s all you can drink for a one-off $5 charge.
Phoenix is a bar that allows smoking even if you’re not playing casino games, so keep that in mind. For smokers, it’s like a step back in time to the good old days, but for others, it can come a bit of a culture shock. However, there’s a fabulous outdoor patio where you can take in the fresh desert air.
LGBT athletes who have been an inspiration on and off the field
There are some sports stars across the US and the world who are out and proud. They are paving a path for new generations, so let’s celebrate them.
The sports world is one that loves tradition. In most respects, that’s a good thing, and some of the rituals attached to our favorite sports have become woven into national folklore. There are times, however, when those deeply ingrained practices make it difficult for sport to move with the times.
It means that traditions dating back to the mid 20th century or earlier can sometimes be accompanied by attitudes from the same period. For example, there is an immense gender gap in professional sports of practically every type when it comes to both the profile of the sport and the money earned by the athletes. Certain sports also show an alarming disparity when it comes to ethnicity. The achievements of stars like Tiger Woods and the Williams sisters illuminate just how few black golfers and tennis pros there are, for example.
But even more glaringly obvious than this is the underrepresentation of LGBT sports pros. Could it be that even in 2019, outdated “locker room” mentalities mean that there is still a fear of coming out? The good news is that there are some sports stars across the US and the world who are out and proud. They are paving a path for new generations, so let’s celebrate them.
The former Olympic decathlete was a man of many talents and of strong convictions. Prior to his professional sporting career, he qualified as a doctor and then served in the US Army as a paratrooper and preventative medical officer. Waddell competed in the 1968 Mexico Olympics, where he placed sixth in the decathlon out of 33 entrants.
With his military, sporting and medical background, it was an immensely brave act for Waddell to come out given the attitudes of the early 1970s. In 1972, he joined a gay bowling league, and it was this that brought home to him how few openly gay athletes there are. It inspired him to organize the inaugural Gay Olympics in 1982, although an injunction by the IOC forced an eleventh hour name change to the Gay Games.
Waddell passed away in 1987 aged just 49. Despite declining health, he witnessed and even participated in Gay Games II, winning Gold in the javelin. To this day, he is remembered with numerous tributes and his legacy is one that will live forever.
The center, who played 13 seasons in the NBA, came out in 2013. The news created a media storm, as he was the first active male athlete from any of the four major sporting leagues to come out as gay. The Guardian newspaper said at the time that this was a defining moment for LGBT rights, describing professional sport at the “final frontier.”
Collins himself has always remained level headed, and very much takes the attitude that he is doing no more than less than playing the cards he is dealt. He famously said: “I’m black. And I’m gay. I didn’t set out to be the first openly gay athlete playing in a major American team sport. But since I am, I’m happy to start the conversation.”
That conversation is still ongoing and today, Collins is a passionate advocate for LGBT rights.
Despite these inspiring stories, it would be disingenuous to pretend that coming out as a sports pro is easy, or that once done, the world will welcome you, congratulate you and let you get on with your life. Michael Sam knows that better than most.
The defensive end spent one season in the NFL, playing for the St Louis Rams. Having come out the previous year, he was the first openly gay player in the NFL. His pro career never really got off the ground, and after a season with the Montreal Alouettes he retired from football. Throughout his pro career, there was constant distraction due to debate over his sexuality. An anonymous source in the NFL said that Sam’s decision to come out immediately after college would probably affect his chances of being drafted, while campaigners with placards either berating or supporting Sam were a common site at and around games.
All this meant that Sam struggled to focus 100 percent on football, and he even remarked that his career might have gone differently had he stayed in the closet. Today, he works as a writer and motivational speaker.
Born William Bruce Jenner, Caitlyn Jenner is without doubt the most famous and talked-about transgender woman on the planet. Back in the 1970s and prior to her gender reassignment surgery, she led the world in decathlon. After winning the gold medal at the 1975 Olympics, it was the then Bruce Jenner who started the tradition of taking a national flag from a spectator and carrying it on the victory lap, something that is still imitated to this day.
In 1982, Bruce Jenner featured on the cover of Playgirl. Who could have imagined that the next magazine cover, some 33 years later would be so different? Caitlyn Jenner has shared the highs and lows of gender reassignment with the world through interviews, social media and even her own TV series. She’s a lady that polarizes opinion, but that’s fine – after all, black or white, straight, gay or trans, none of us have an automatic right to be liked by everyone. What is beyond doubt is that she’s done more than anyone to get people talking about gender reassignment and to bring into everyday conversation. And that can never be a bad thing.
Blazing a trail
There are literally dozens of other names we could mention, including swimmer Ian Thorp, boxer Orlando Cruz, diver Tom Daley and England cricketers Katherine Brunt and Natalie Sciver, who recently announced their engagement.
The good news is that with every passing year, we can add more names to this list, and the day will come when we will no longer have to. Saying a sports star is gay or trans will be as irrelevant as saying he or she is left handed or wears a size 10 shoe. The important thing to remember is that this change does not happen overnight, and it has only been made possible by those who had the courage to take those first steps.
Tinder is a waste of time for most people
Female Tinder users are, on average, more interested in finding long-term relationships than men are. This also applies to encounters without using dating apps.
“For people who don’t pull off one-night stands without using Tinder, Tinder doesn’t offer much in the way of new opportunities,” says postdoc Trond Viggo Grøntvedt, from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology’s (NTNU) Department of Psychology.
He is the first author of a new article – titled “Hook, Line and Sinker: Do Tinder Matches and Meet Ups Lead to One-Night Stands?” – that appeared in Evolutionary Psychological Science to deal with the use of Tinder. If you’re failing outside Tinder, then you don’t have much to gain from using Tinder, either.
Other authors include: Mons Bendixen, Ernst O. Botnen and Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair
“For people who actually have sexual relations outside Tinder, Tinder use only provides a limited increase in the number of one-night stands,” Grøntvedt says.
“Most of the people who succeed on Tinder have casual sex and hook-ups otherwise, too,” says Kennair at the Department of Psychology at NTNU.
The researchers have previously found that Tinder use did not lead to an increase in one-night stands.
“We have found little reason to claim that dating apps lead to more short-term sexual relationships than before,” says Bendixen, also in NTNU’s Department of Psychology.
There is thus no reason for any moral outrage from anyone.
Tinder is one of several match-making apps. It uses location services to find other users nearby and then tries to match users with each other.
Selecting someone is simple and effective: candidates pop up with a picture and some information on the screen. Swiping to the left means you’re not interested in a meet-up. Swiping to the right means you would like to meet the person. If two people swipe right on each other, the app can help them meet.
But sweeping and searching on Tinder has very limited effectiveness for the vast majority of users, who will probably succeed just as well by meeting live people instead.
Lots of hits needed
A lot of hits are needed on Tinder before any lead to a meeting. And even more hits are required before any kind of relationship can happen, whether we’re talking about a one-night stand or a meeting a partner with the aim of having a long-term committed relationship.
Men and women tend to use Tinder and other dating apps differently. Most women take more time to evaluate potential matches and are more often looking for a relationship, whereas most men are quicker in their assessments and swipe to the right far more often in the hope that a high enough number will result in at least one hit.
About 20 per cent of users had one-night stands after using Tinder. The vast majority of them had only experienced this once. Thus, eight of ten users never have sex after using the app.
“Tinder may offer new sexual opportunities, but these appear to be very limited,” says Kennair.
Only a tiny group of seven people, between two and three per cent of the study participants, had one-night stands exclusively after meeting someone through Tinder. The rest achieved this by traditional dating methods as well.
Participants were asked to evaluate how physically attractive they found themselves to be. How physically attractive users are can predict the extent to which they succeed in having short-term sex when using Tinder.
“But this also applies when you’re not using dating apps. Some people get a lot, and a lot get none,” says Kennair.
“Both age and attitudes towards casual sex affect how often you actually achieve a one-night stand after using Tinder. But these are the same factors that play in elsewhere as well,” Grøntvedt says.
If you are more comfortable with casual sex, you’ll also have it more often.
“But there’s also a connection between a high interest in short-term sex encounters and less chance of meeting someone interested in a long-term relationship through the use of the dating app,” says Bendixen.
Female Tinder users are, on average, more interested in finding long-term relationships than men are. This also applies to encounters without using dating apps.
But according to this and previous studies, Tinder is not a very effective way to meet a long-term partner, either.
Ernst Olav Botnen had the idea for this study. He is currently a clinical psychologist at Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital in Oslo.
“It’s interesting to see how the behaviour we see in other arenas, like bars and nightclubs, is reflected in dating apps,” says Botnen.
Of the 269 study participants who were active or former Tinder users, 62 per cent were women.
“Since the participants in our selection are university students in their early 20s, it will be interesting to see if our findings apply to other groups and age ranges in future research,” Botnen says.
International Money Transfer will cost few cents
We now run business from our flats and hire employees all over the world. And most importantly, we constantly exchange and send money online.
International Money Transfer will cost few cents? Soon it may be possible…
We live in the age of globalisation and widely-available connection to the Internet. It’s nothing too unusual to purchase good and services from foreign companies. We run business from our flats and hire employees all over the world. And most importantly, we constantly exchange and send money online. If you have ever wanted to make a larger international transfer you noticed how high the fees could be.
Fortunately, with new technological solutions we may soon be able to send money for a few cents. Moreover, our recipient will receive it after just a few seconds.
Current remittance prices
While banks charge sometimes from $10-$30 for an international wire, online remittance companies have a more appealing rates. You can easily send and exchange a thousand dollars for under $5. It’s very easy to do and convenient. All you have to do is send a regular domestic free bank or card transfer to one of the remittance companies and then they will take care of moving your money between borders.
Blockchain impact on remittance
In last few months there have been a lot of news about cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin or Ethereum. These topics were hot mostly because of the incredible and sudden value gains of these virtual digital coins. If you don’t know too much about them – they work just like any other currency. However, they are purely digital. Moreover, there are no “central banks” or other “admins” of the system. So only you have access to your e-wallet.
There are still lots of obstacles, which prevent any potential wider adaptation of these coins. However, some online stores already accept them among other payment methods. The biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies are cheap fees and quick transfer delivery times. Let’s take a look at the 2nd most popular crypto – Ethereum. It costs $0.2 to send any amount to anywhere in the world. Moreover, your recipient gets the money to his personal wallet just after 15 seconds.
Now, some remittance companies try to utilize blockchain technology to lower their transfer prices.
Better money transfer services
Some of the companies claim that after connecting blockchain solutions to their platforms, they were able to offer their money transfer services in more remote countries. For example, TransferGo started their cooperation with blockchain and cryptocurrency-related project – Ripple.
The CEO of TransferGo said that: “After launching our Ripple corridor to India, we were able to pay out remittances in minutes, Ripple gives us a competitive edge in India, which is the largest global cross-border remittance market, and today we’re moving more than a couple of million pounds per year.”
Ripple tries to help financial institutions benefit from this new technology. Currently most of the banks communicate via SWIFT network (that’s why the international wire is so expensive). As more and more companies decide to try blockchain and for example Ripple’s network, they will be able to lower the prices and increase the speed. In the same interview TransferGo’s CEO talked about how transfer which takes a few minutes is already becoming too outdated for the modern money transfer market.
Which remit platform is the best?
As even big mainstream financial institutions such as Santander Bank decided to try utilizing blockchain technology, maybe it is the future of remittance and inter-bank communication? We can already see the difference in fees and charges offered by classic remittance companies versus the ones which are not afraid of trying new solutions. Even Facebook is soon introducing their own blockchain-based digital coin. You can read about how Libra can empower financially less-developed regions and bring cheap and almost instant money transfers. All you will need to send thousands of dollars to anyone in the world for few cents is a smartphone with Internet connection…
Do’s & dont’s for better sex using toys
If it works for you, that’s great, but talking things through before springing anything on (or into) your partner is more than just manners, it’s consent, and you’ll need it before you try anything new, no matter how much you just know they’re “…going to love it.”
New to the world of sex toys? Perhaps you’ve played solo for years and have finally found or have decided to share the joy with your partner. Either way, there’s some crucial data to take on board when sharing the buzz or maybe the harness with your bedfellows.
Seems straightforward, even mandatory for most of us, but even in the heat of the moment (which might just be your own), consider your partner’s feelings and wishes above all else. If it works for you, that’s great, but talking things through before springing anything on (or into) your partner is more than just manners, it’s consent, and you’ll need it before you try anything new, no matter how much you just know they’re “…going to love it.”
At the risk of sounding naive, it’s astonishing how many toy owners complain, and then wonder why/how their partner can’t be into it, when they thrust the dry probe or over-sized phallus into what’s usually their partner’s hottest pleasure center. Whatever the toy, if it has any part that sits close to, or penetrates, even a fraction of an inch, use a high quality water-based lubricant, and check before using other kinds, they might just damage/degrade materials like silicone and some newer polymers. It’s easy enough to forget, so make sure you have a steady and ready supply, which leads us to the next point:
If you have a first time toy experience or even a regular date night buzz planned with your partner, plan for it. Make it special, romantic or as fun and crazy as you guys enjoy whatever it is you do, but be prepared. Have plenty of lube, towels and wipes, toy cleaner and condoms; everything that you wouldn’t want to have missing in the heat of the moment. Many a romantic interlude or passionate embrace has been interrupted or ruined with the fateful words like, “You did bring a rubber, right?” or “Hand me some lube, honey.”
Being prepared incorporates personal and physical hygiene, so…
Be sure and get clean before you get down and dirty
This is especially the case for anyone using anal toys, plugs, vibrators, or pumps. Anything that’s going anywhere near your tushie needs to be clean itself, and you want your rear end to be so clean you could… well, clean enough to do whatever you’re going to do ‘back there.’
Anal douching, even enemas are the unadvertised necessity when it comes to anal play, and it isn’t always spelled out for you on the box. If you or your partner are new to or want to explore anal play, start by exploring the fascinating (and sexy for some) world of cleaning yourself before anal sex.
It’s the same for any kind of sex; for any gender. If you’re sharing yourself (and your toys), you need to make sure both they and their intended users are clean. Guys, it’s your responsibility to clean your manhood as much as it is for any partner to make themselves fresh and appealing for you too.
It’s the same as body parts, never share toys between partners without sterilizing, and be mindful too, because some materials are porous and need a condom fitted to avoid risk of infection/cross-contamination.
Keep it fun and light-hearted
If either partner is new to toys, keep it fun and don’t bring out the biggest, most intimidating toy in the box. Start slow and explore boundaries. They’re there for a reason, and not all partner’s boundaries or preferences/choices need to be overcome. Always only do what feels right for both of you.
Time and place
If you’re staying over or having a partner stay, consider the toy/s you have in mind. Some people lose control when they have a buzz-induced orgasm, real screamers. Also, consider the type/style and volume/requirements of your toys. Do they make a lot of noise? And if they do, is it appropriate to use them on the day/night. Do they need batteries or power? Refer back to being prepared, but consider how practical and fun what you want to use really is, and you may do this by considering all factors of the intended experience.
Despite what some people think, or the online descriptions suggest, it is not always fine to take your dildo or vibrator to work. It can be fun, but it could also be super awkward for your coworkers or boss if you’re found doing something you shouldn’t be at work. Keep work and play separate. Use your own discernment and common sense as a necessity.
Pleasure your partner first
Unless you have a standing order, if you’re the more experienced toy user, or if the toy is specific to your partner’s needs, focus attention on them first. Making it all about your partner is a secret to most problems that arise from the bedroom in relationships. If you make it about them, your own sense of fulfillment is greatly enhanced, and for guys, it’s a sure way to last longer overall, as well as being what he/she really wants… someone who thinks about them instead of themselves all of the time.
Make it personal
Familiar users of toys can personalize their experience. Gifting your partner a toy which suits their personality, preferred position or style of pleasure, even if it’s just their favorite color, is a truly great way to customize the toy-based experience.
Don’t depend on toys every time you have sex/climax
It maybe blasphemy for some, but use toys as they are intended, and add accessories to heighten and enhance the natural and intimate sensuality of partnered/solo sexual encounters. Sometimes training your body to climax to artificial stimulation might make the natural response more difficult over time.
Enjoy toys, by all means, and delight in the intensity of their power, feel and sensations that you can share and enjoy with or without your partner, but keep it real. Like anything fun, if it becomes an obsession, or is keeping you from performing in your non-toy life, it could become a problem rather than a pleasure. Use your own discernment here.